Importance Of Land Subsidence In Indonesia

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1. Introduction
A number of areas in various ecosystems in Indonesia are now facing land subsidence. Jakarta, Semarang, Indragiri Hilir, and Siak are the area where the rate of land subsidence is excessive. Jakarta and Semarang, located in urbanized and coastal area, experience land subsidence due to groundwater extraction and natural consolidation of sediment material. Population growth and intensive urban development in these areas accelerate groundwater extraction. As mentioned by Calderhead, Therrien, Rivera, Martel, & Garfias (2011), population and industrial growth generated intensive exploration of aquifers due to the increasing of groundwater demand. The extensive exploration of groundwater is growing time to time since Jakarta and Semarang are located in high demand investment area for industrial, commercial, and settlement. In addition, Indragiri Hilir and Siak experience land subsidence due to intensive drainage and intensive agricultural development of peatland area. According to Nieuwenhuis, & Schokking (1997) and Schothorst (1977), intensive agricultural activities in peatland area were the major contributor of land subsidence. Intensive expansion of palm oil, coconut, and timber plantation as well as urban physical growth in Indragiri Hilir and Siak will accelerate the subsidence. Jakarta and Semarang have been leading to severe and costly damages to urban infrastructures such as buildings, roads, and railway tracks caused by land subsidence (H. Z. Abidin et

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