Children learn to speak popular view, by copying the utterances heard around them, and by having their responses strengthened by the repetitions, corrections, and other reactions that adults provide. In recent years, it has become clear that this principle will not explain all the facts of language development. Children do imitate a great deal, especially in learning sounds and vocabulary; but little of their grammatical ability can be explained in this way. Two kinds of evidence are commonly used in support of this criticism one based on the kind of language children produce, the other on what they do not produce. The first piece of evidence derives from the way children handle irregular grammatical patterns.
Sometimes this term is replaced by many other labels such as Infants Directed Speech (IDS), Baby talk, Caregiver speech, Motherese, Parentese, etc. Each lables use variously depending on what the researchers view CDS in what aspect. This kind of language pattern adopted by parents and caregiver is used to interact with the young baby who cannot produce comprehensible sentence. CDS does not provide only language learning opportunity for children, but also many other reasons. For example, the parents use CDS in addressing their baby with high pitch rage and reduce speaking speed in order to call attention from the baby (Fernald et al.,
Information obtained in the process in used to identify those children for whom language intervention is appropriate and to provide initial directions for that intervention. McLean&Synder-McLean (1999) stated that language is used for specific reasons, and without these there would be no purpose for language. Language helps us achieve communicative or social functions. This aspect of language is referred to as pragmatics. According to Hadley and Rice (1991), the early breakdowns in communicative interactions may be the beginning “of a negative interactive spiral generated by a child’s history of communicative failure wherein the child becomes less lightly to respond as he/she experiences failure in peer interactions and peers become less lightly to attend to the child’s initiations.” The assessment of pragmatic language skills is difficult and challenging for speech-language pathologists.
The procedure of learning the primary language can be elaborated very simply: children first produce single words, then they learn to unite words into phrases, and with time they learn to combine phrases into sentences. This developmental procedure is driven by the urge to converse, which is part of every child’s biological inheritance. Right from the birth, children communicate with the people in their instant surroundings – initially through eye contact, then through gesture and posture. It has been rightly said that young children are natural language acquirers. They are self-motivated to choose a language without conscious learning, unlike adolescents and adults.
Now the concept of grammar has been defined and approached in historical terms, it is time to move onto the second section of this topic; a section which will deal with the role or importance of grammar within the process of L1 and FL learning. We have all observed children acquiring their L1 with ease yet struggling to learn a L2 in the classroom and sometimes even failing. Regarding L1 learning, it has been shown that babies may become familiar with aspects of their future L1 while they are still in the womb. After birth, learning a language starts with the baby producing its first noises and cries. They are able to mirror their parents’ use of intonation and stress, for example, by waggling their hands in time of parents’ use of stressed
Maria Montessori has a very different approach to grammar which is still working, logical and relevant even to date. The child of two and half years when starts schooling they already aware about language, concept of language and they can express clearly in mother tongue without any grammatical mistakes to a certain extent. The children in Montessori school experience grammar work as they learn with specific colorful geometric – shaped grammar symbols. The study of language becomes a total delight for all ages. Color-coded grammar provides clear and logical principles for determining the parts of speech in any sentence.
INTRODUCTION The objectives of English language learning are I) To enable the students comprehend the spoken form II) To develop students ability to use English in day-to-day life and real life situation III) To understand the written text and able to use skimming, scanning skills IV) To write simple English to express ideas etc The teacher should play different roles to get these objectives of English language. Role of English teacher in developing listening skills in students: Listening is the basis to learn any language. No one can speak second language without listening to it. Students, who come from English medium, are good at English as they have English atmosphere in their class rooms. After completion of degrees, they are good at
Nevertheless, it also requires knowledge about grammatical rules to comprehend the text in reading. Savage et al (2010) implies that grammar is the most important part of language skills consist of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. Thus, grammar is nucleus of achieving language skills in spoken or written language. In learning a language skill, it
D) Language for which its speaker is more tended. Students who have come to GGHS speak Panjabi as their mother tongue; therefore their concept and vocal cords are grown up and are modified according to Panjabi language. They are used to the Panjabi pronunciation, sound and also the perception of Panjabi language. To pronounce English sound and English language is a difficult for them. Mother tongue too affects in reading English.
English also represents the Language for Learning (L4L) as children begin literacy instruction or reading and writing instructions in English rather than in the primary language spoken at home and attend primary schools with English as their medium of instruction. In the routine clinical practice, it is observed that most parents prefer and wish that assessments of speech and language skills be conducted in English. This necessitates assessment of speech sound production skills of children in English as well as their home language. Research directed at examining speech sound acquisition in English within the Indian context among children speaking English and different Indian languages are lacking. Word lists and tests used for articulation testing in English among children have been developed for western populations.