Cognitive learning strategies involve the mental or physical manipulation of the material to be learned. The strategies are resourcing, grouping, note taking, and elaboration. Teachers model, rehears, and support students the use of learning strategies in the classroom. Social/affective learning strategies interconnect the cognitive and the sociocultural dimensions of the biography. This kind of strategies considers two levels: the individual level and the interactive level.
Moreover the learning style of one learner is different from another learner. So the strategies they employ in learning a language also differ. For example some of the learners prefer listening to lectures on language to writing or reading the language. Some learners may be comfortable to read rather than to speak or write. But to learn a language they must improve the four basic LSRW skills.
Consequently, the strategies develop “learner autonomy, independence, and self-direction” (Oxford & Nyikos, 1989, p. 291). When the students are equipped with different kinds of VLSs, they can decide how exactly they would like to come up with unknown words. Having a good knowledge of the existing strategies and the ability to make use of them in suitable situations might considerably make the learning process of new vocabulary simpler for students. For instance, when a given student himself/herself selects which words to study, they can remember the words better than when someone else chooses the words for them (Ranalli, 2003; cited in Gani Hamzah et al.,
Learning strategies represent the behavior and thoughts, which occupies a student during learning. Learning strategies are the techniques used by students to test the new material to develop, organize and / or to understand and influence self-motivation and feelings. The use of mnemonic devices can be seen as one type of learning strategy. Learning strategies can be divided into several categories as under: - 1. Rehearsal strategies (For example, repeat items in a list, highlight the text of an article) Uses repeated practice to learn information.
Rubin derived the language learning strategies under the perspective of cognitive psychology. Afterwards, the scope of language learning strategies (LLSs) was integrated with the cognitive of psychology in which Training research on learning strategies with second languages has been limited almost exclusively to cognitive strategy applications. In the point of that view, various types of strategies were born, as O’Malley cited “Cognitive strategies are more directly related to individual learning tasks or transformation of the learning tasks and entail direct manipulation or transformation of materials” (Brown and Palincsar, 1982). Another type of LLSs that suggested in the literature on cognitive psychology was metacognitive strategies which involve “thinking about the learning process, planning for learning, monitoring comprehension or production while it is taking place, and self-evaluation of learning after the language activity is completed” (O’Malley et al, 1985;
Motivation in language learning plays a vital role. It produces effective second-language communicators by planting in the learners the seeds of self-confidence. In order for English instructors to motivate them, a number of methods are needed both within and outside the classroom. According to Hussin, et al. (2001): They state that six factors influence motivation in language learning: (i) attitudes, (ii) beliefs about self, (iii) goals, (iv) involvement, (v) environmental support, and (vi) personal attributes.
This section will discuss the theoretical framework of the study together with studies in the field of vocabulary learning strategies and their importance in language learning. 3.1 The importance of teaching vocabulary In the past, vocabulary was given little attention in the field of language teaching. This approach towards vocabulary was due to fact that linguistic research focused on syntax and phonology and neglected the important role of vocabulary teaching and learning. However, recent years recognized the vital role of vocabulary. (Richards &Renandya: 2002 ; Carter & McCarthy ;Koda; 1997 ; Paribakakht&Wesche: 1997).
Language is a way of expressing ideas and gives us the extraordinary ability to describe the contents of our thoughts. Familiarity with ways that help us to learn a language is very important. In the process of learning a Language many skills work together to create a link between a speaker and interlocutors. These skills generally taught and assessed in terms of the ‘four basic language skills, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. All language learners will need to develop their skills in each of these sections.
Chapter two: Language learning strategies 1-Definition of language learning strategies: Learning strategies are behaviors or thoughts that a Lerner engages in during learning that are intended to influence the learners encoding process (Weinstein Mayer, 1986, p.315). more specifically learning strategies are operation employed by the learner to aid the equation, storage, retrieval, and use of information specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective and more transferable to new situations (Rebecca oxford, p. 8). learning strategy for L2s are “specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques such as seeking out conversation partners, or giving oneself encouragement to tackle a difficult language task used by students to