Importance Of Language Learning Strategies

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In short, language learning strategies are applied by language learners as a means to acquire and to use information that learners have acquired, stored or recalled, and can also promote autonomous learning (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990:78-9; Nisbet & Shucksmith, 1986:12, 92). Thus, as many researchers have defined language learning strategies, the background and classification of language learning strategies should be briefly summarized in the following section.

2.2.1 Language Learning Strategies: Definition
Before attempting to explain and classify language learning strategies as used by speakers of other languages, I would like first of all to provide a rationale for the choice of the term strategy. Although used by many prominent writers (such
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And Stern (1983), had stated that learning outcomes are much influenced by learning process, and the learning process is affected by the learners’ internal characteristics and learning conditions and learning environment. As Wenden (1987a:7-8) says “Learning strategies are the different operations that learners use in order to make sense of their learning”. According to Wenden (1987a), language learning strategies can be explained from the aspect of language learning behaviors, such as learning and regulating the meaning of a second or foreign language, cognitive theory, such as learners’ strategic knowledge of language learning, and the affective view, such as learners’ motivation, attitude, etc. It is argued that three points of views can improve language learning. O’Malley, Chamot and their colleagues (Chamot & O’Malley, 1987; O’Malley et al., 1985a) were assigned to studying the use of learning strategies by ESL learners in the US. Based on their research, language learning strategies were classified into three main categories, metacognitive, cognitive, and social affective which refer to learners’ planning their learning, thinking about the learning process, monitoring their own comprehension or production, and evaluating the outcomes of their own learning. Next, Rigney (1978),and Rubin (1987), explained language learning strategies as behaviors, steps, or techniques that language learners apply to facilitate language learning. Moreover, the definition by Oxford (1990) also included cognitive, emotional, and social aspects of language learning strategies that enhance learners’ language learning proficiency and self-confidence (Oxford, 1990; Ehrman & Oxford,

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