Culture has no fixed habitation, is all-pervading and impalpable in its essence. Those who have experienced it know something about it, yet at the same time no one knows it at all. To no two people does it bear exactly the same appearance, but to those who have any share in it, it appears real and substantial. Culture does not mean the possession of knowledge which is common to all educated men. Rather it implies an attitude of one’s mind than a
He has developed a theory of grammar that is supposed to describe the universal properties underlying the grammars of every language in the world known as ‘Universal Grammar’ and claims that it is so abstract and complex that it cannot be learned at all through environment stimuli. He believes that every child has a ‘language acquisition device’ or LAD which encodes the major principles of a language and its grammatical structures. In fact, it is amazing how children are able to acquire a new language quickly and effortlessly despite language being so complex and irregular. To sum up, language is a product of innate abilities that evolved to serve human goals especially
According to the Cambridge Dictionary, language is an arbitrary means of communicating through oral, written, spoken, and/or gestured symbols (dictionary.cambridge.org). In his book The Language Instinct, Steven Pinker aims to enhance the readers knowledge about different aspects of language and explain the underlying concepts of how it is formed and used. Whether the reader is familiar with concepts of language or just reading for pleasure, Pinker is able to effectively communicate and explain the many different principles that go into language learning and how they affect our daily language use. In The Sounds of Silence, Pinker talks about the importance of sound, mainly in relation to speech and perception. Phonology is very important in the role of an English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher because having extended knowledge on the pronunciations of my native language can help me to better assist non-native speakers in theirs.
Coming into this course I feel like my views were very standoffish. I never truly thought about how these problems affect people in a big way. Throughout this course I learned about many different topics. In this class we learned many things about many topics. I feel like the ones that we talked about were always current.
Students have to understand in what is expressed from the given clues. English as a Foreign Language (EFL) refers to teaching and learning English language in non-native speaking countries where English is not a medium language to communicate. Sentence comprehension is a capacity of the mind to perceive and understand the sentence and get ideas from the reading text. Complex sentence is a sentence that consists of at least two clauses: a main clause and a dependent clause. Dependent clause is parts of a sentence which cannot stand alone as a complete sentence because it does not express a complete thought also it need additional information to finish the
The inextricable relationship between language and culture has been accentuated by different scholars and researchers in English Language Teaching (ELT) pedagogy (Byram, 2013; Halliday, 2007 & Kramsch, 1993). For instance, Brown (2000, p. 177) noted that “language and culture are interwoven in a way that one cannot be isolated from the other without losing its significance”. Bennet, Bennet and Allen (2003) stressed the inseparability of language and culture by claiming that learning a language without its underlying culture makes the learner a fluent fool. Kramsch (1993) contend that language is a carrier of culture which influences its speakers’ interpretation and perception of the world. There have been different views regarding the concept of culture which indicate its complex nature.
This view was cited by many linguists all over the world. However, all of views from the two researcher were relied on their subjective thoughts which had never been emerged in any works before. While this topic has still been controversial, other linguists try to pave the way for exploring different aspects of the terms “life”. While metaphor plays an important role in literature and it is a favorable method used to convey various message by writers, both Vietnamese and English literature have covered term “life” as a target domain in many works for ages. Therefore, studying different ways in using metaphor of “life” certainly may lead to interesting results.
Introduction: The acquisition of language is different from language learning which is used with reference to a second language which a person learns purposefully; particularly in formal settings like school etc. The researchers like Littlefair (1991), Dockrell and Messer (1988), and Widdowson, (1978) found a demarcation line between language acquisition and language learning and used the expression of first language acquisition in contrast with second language learning, but many researchers and theorists don’t distinguish between the two. Farzan(2000) for instance, treated language acquisition as a purely stylistic alternate to language learning. The four main skills of the English language are reading, listening, speaking, and writing. A person needs a mastery of various elements to use the language to reflect thoughts, desires, intentions , feeling and information in a written form (Pamela, 1991).The four basic English language skills are divided into two categories such as receptive skills and productive skills.
The uses of teaching aids are very important and teacher needs to challenge him/herself to try something new on the teaching aids in order to attract students’ interest effectively. Teaching science using written aids sound boring but it is important because most of the times students are dealing with words in learning especially in learning science it has scientific words that students need to understand. Written is a past participle of write, write is to make letters or numbers on a surface, especially using a pen or pencil whereas aid is something, especially a piece of equipment, that helps you do something. (Advanced English Dictionary, 2009). Written aid is tool consist characters that help in learning process.
The problem then arises; from the aspect of science is there any method or maybe media that can facilitate students in learning English, especially writing skill in English. Ideally, as the government issued the Kompetensi Dasar – the Basic Competence as the guides of implementing writing programs is: ‘Menyusun teks lisan dan tulis untuk menyatakan dan menanyakan tentang tindakan/kegiatan/kejadian yang dilakukan/terjadi di waktu lampau yang merujuk waktu terjadinya dengan yang merujuk pada kesudahannya, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai