“Perhaps the single most unifying concept in the arena of early literacy instruction and assessment is recognition of the need for multiple assessment measures,”(Jones, 2003). Assessment and feedback are crucial for helping people learn. Assessment should mirror good instruction; happen continuously as part of instruction; and provide information about the levels of understanding that students are reaching. In order for learners to gain insight into their learning and their understanding, frequent feedback is critical: students need to monitor their learning and actively evaluate their strategies and their current levels of understanding. (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking, 1999) Individuals acquire a skill much more rapidly if they receive feedback about the correctness of what they have done.
For me learning is an ongoing process of attaining knowledge and skill by studying or practicing, utilizing diverse styles which best support an individual in a formal or informal way. E.g. learning to write words or numbers, a foreign language or be it as basic as to ride a bike. As children grow they are likely to have different learning styles. Generally, children use three main physical receivers; Visual i.e.
Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick (2006) indicate that “formative assessment can promote the development of capacities and attitudes used in lifelong learning. Assessment-centred or student-centred learning environments also emphasize congruence between learning goals and what is assessed”. Formative assessment is going on all an ideal opportunity to give feedback on what understudies are figuring out how to distinguish accomplishment and areas for further work. Additionally, for the educator or teachers to evaluate effectiveness of instructing or teaching and provide a feed forward or to centre feasible arrangements. “Good feedback practice is not only about providing accessible and usable information that helps students improve their learning, but it is also about providing good information to teachers” (Nicol and Macfarlane, 2006, p. 214).
Schools and teachers assess students in numerous methods, for a diversity of reasons – ranging from extensive classifications of judging, sorting and ranking, to more subtle explanations, determining students’ needs and level of understanding. Educators have distinguished a very strong difference concerning summative assessment and formative assessment; however the distinction is believed to be modified between how data is generated and how assessments are used. This paper will focus on formative assessments, and the difference between formal formative and informal formative assessments. Proceeding to the observation on how assessments can be used in the classroom effectively, the aspects of assessments and procedures to follow. Concluding
Significance of the Study The crucial role of assessment in teaching and learning has been well recognized by many researchers. For instance, Anderson (1990) puts forward that assessment plays a critical and leading role in pedagogy. In other words, assessing studentsʼ achievement and learning is an essential prerequisite for every educational system. The view is echoed by Black and William (1998b) who remark that assessment is integral to learning. Likewise, Brown (2004) states “assessment is an integral part of teaching-learning cycle” (p. 16).
A key characteristic is that the assessment information used by both teacher and pupils to modify their work in order to make it more effective”. In a similar vein, Tunstall and Gipps (1996) wrote “formative assessment means teachers using their judgments of children knowledge or understanding to feedback into the teaching process and to determine for individual children whether to re-explain the task/concept, to give further practice on it or move on the next stage”. (cited in Harry Torrance and John Pryor, 1998). In addition, Black & Wiliam (1998) adopted a more restrictive definition by limiting the term to assessment conducted while learning was taking place. They defined formative assessment as a concept that teachers use information from activities to determine the next steps in learning and teaching.
This means that learning outcomes are clear, learning experiences are designed to assist student achievement of those outcomes, and carefully designed assessment tasks allow students to demonstrate achievement of those outcomes. Assessment is a process that focuses on student learning, a process that involves reviewing and reflecting on practice as academics have always done, but in a more planned and careful way (Ewell, 2000). According to Cox and Godfrey (1997) the process of utilizing assessment and evaluation within the context of education relates to the principles of good teaching and classroom management. Assessment and evaluation are necessary aspects of the teaching process because educational objectives are often very broad in their scope and, as such, are often vague. The teacher must therefore interpret these broad objectives and establish specific and tangible
He pointed out that assessment should concentrate on assisting teachers to amend the direction they use assessment results, they should improve the character of their classroom assessments, and adjust their assessments with valued learning goals and district standards. Assessment of learners is serious because decisions are made on the capability of teachers to know their learners and to match activities with exact assessments. When teachers ' classroom assessments become a vital component of the instructional process and a key component in their attempts to help scholars learn, the benefits of appraisal for both scholars and instructors will be unlimited (Gonzales, 2015). The efficiency of assessment is attained if it is specific (Sarwar, 2010). Student’s strengths and weaknesses must be known in order for the teachers to help learning.
As she sees it, the educator will definitely see the beneficial changes in students’ behavior, academic success and performance. Moreover, Hall emphasizes, that affective assessment must not affect one’s grades or marks, as summative assessment does, but has to be used in order to encourage learners’ desire to learn, encourage them to immerse in language atmosphere, which could reflect their authentic
Formative and Summative Assessments Formative Assessment (Assessments FOR Learning) Summative Assessment (Assessments OF Learning) • Formative assessments are diagnostic and are known as assessments FOR learning (AFL). • It is designed to assist educators and students in improving learning as it provides continual specific and descriptive feedback to the student. • This process provides direction for improvement. • Formative assessment focuses on improvement. • It is not used for grading purposes, but • Summative assessments are assessments OF learning (AOL).