What is public participation. It is the deliberate process through which interested or affected citizens, civil society organisations and government actors are involved in policy making before a political decision is taken. It is the process through which stakeholders input and shares control over development initiatives decisions and resources and resources which affect them. it has been said to move beyond the traditional methods of public consultations by creating opportunities for the open exchange of ideas, transparency,mutual learning and informed and representative decision making. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK Under the constitution People may exercise their sovereign power their sovereign powers directly or through their democratically elected representatives.
Representative democracy has a “channel” to ensure the direct participation of the people (i.e. citizens) in the political system, through elections for “Parliament and local self-government bodies” (Belov, n.d.). Moreover, if voters (i.e. public) is not happy with the electors or elected members of the parliament, it can replace those representatives with new elected representatives (Do We Really Live in a Democracy, and Do We Really Have the Right to Vote?, 2010). Thus, the ultimate control, even in the case of representative democracy, is placed in the hands of the citizens; it is they who decide and elect the members of the parliament and the elected members make the political decisions on their behalf.
The latter two are present qualities of consensus to secure the involvement of various unions, and to establish common ground for their interests ascertained. To avoid having the government acting as a centralized government, Consensus embodies the workings of a federal and decentralized governmental structure. A bicameral legislature is mandatory in assuring equal representation. The upper house keeps the lower house accountable by lengthening the process of enactment. A fixed constitution assists in ensuring guidelines are followed, and prevents the option for particular groups wanting to accommodate their standing.
2. State Bureaucracy Model Within this approach, higher education is perceived as “an instrument for national political agendas”. Its most important purpose is to carry out and implement national political objectives. Therefore, higher education as an arm of the state is governed primarily by external actors
It helps to recognise the rights and freedoms of citizens through a bill of rights, which works both to protect citizens and to confine the power of the state. A constitution whether it is written or unwritten will share common features which is they will identify the key institutions of the state which
Vertical accountability means that the government is accountable to its citizens and the protection of their rights and freedoms. Horizontal accountability makes certain that the government in power is restrained by other governmental institutions that keeps it regulated. Accountability is essential to ensure that the actions and decisions of the government public officials meet their objectives, keeping in mind the best interest of its citizens. A more concrete and fundamental system is essential in order for there to be constraints on the PM’s power in regards to policy changes, annual government tax spending and other important
Preamble, Whereas; it is expedient to make the functions of the sate open and transparent in accordance with the democratic system and to make responsible and accountable to the citizen; to make the access of citizens simple and easy to the information of public importance held in public bodies; to protect sensitive information that could make adverse impact on the interest of the nation and citizen, and for the necessity to have legal provisions to protect the right of the citizen to be well-informed and to bring it into practice, the 'Legislature-Parliament' has enacted this
It is influenced by host country government actions and local special interest groups actons , as well as by the prevailing political philosophy. The government plays a principal role in host countries in implementing andinitiating policies regarding the conduct,operation and ownership of businesses, and so can encourage or discourage foreign businesses through a variety of measures.Governmental behavior flow from the government’s interpretation of its own self-interest (national interest), which typically includes things like: Self-preservation, security, prosperity, ideology, and cultural identity. (2) Host Government Actions As per the national interest presented above, it brings the following actions that host government may carry on. The certain political actions might involve: jawboning, “buy local” restrictions, subsidies, operating conditions, local content, nontariff barriers,ownership conditions, boycotts, and
By engaging in civic responsibility, citizens ensure and uphold certain democratic values written in the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the article “Civil Responsibility” by Jennifer Self, she defines the main topic, “Civic Responsibility is defined as the “responsibility” of the citizen.” This means that civic responsibility is meant for citizens to do what they think is truly best for society. These values or duties include justice, freedom, equality, diversity, authority, privacy,property, and etc. Citizens are able to learn civic responsibility by engaging in service learning. Service learning is the concept of learning how to help or serve the needs of other people.
As the UK is a state that operates under democratic rule, this entails the protection of individual rights and liberties. The importance of rights and liberties are highlighted by the 1998 Human Rights Act, and Article 8 sets out the right to private life and family (Human Rights Act, 1998). Cases such as Tony Nicklinson, which will be further explained in Chapter Three, have challenged the current legal system and argued that they have a justified right under the Human Rights Act to private life, and as an extension of this, a right to request assisted