Leadership has an integral role in developing groups, societies, and nations (Choi, 2007:244). Leadership can be defined as a process of directing the behavior of others and the ability to influence decisions. Bello-Imam and Obadan (2004:2) defined leadership as the exercise of state power with the consent of the people, either directly or indirectly through their elected representatives. Within democratic governance discourse, leadership significantly influences state institutions regarding the formulation of appropriate policies, strategies and management decisions. Democratic leadership is conceptualized by White and Lippitt (1960), as involving group participation, discussion, and group decisions encouraged by the leader.
1. Local Self-government. Local self- government means the ‘’right and ability of local authorities within the restrictions of law to control and manage important share of public affair under their own responsibility and interest of the population’’. (Council of Europe 1985)(Wikipedia). According to the council of Europe (1985) the concept of local self-government can also be define as a system in which citizen of a country or a smaller political unit such as a state rule themselves and control their own affairs.it consists of elected representatives which are freely elected by ballot on the basis of direct, equal, universal suffrage, and which may possess executive organs responsible to them.
The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 This legislative measure maintains that municipalities are democratic and therefore should be accountable to the citizens within the communities that are under their borders. Furthermore, the Constitution encourages local government to involve the public in their decision making processes. White Paper on Local Government, 1998 This is the legislative measure that is commonly referred to as the constitution for municipalities. The White Paper on Local Government, envisages a process where communities will play an active role and also take part in the matters of governance. It is clearly stated in this legislative measure that the citizens should be allowed to identify their needs, evaluate the municipalities’ performance so that they can hold the
The MFMA delegations framework is consistent with the broader principles and has been developed to assist municipalities in reviewing and amending their system of delegations for financial management, consistent with the MFMA and its regulations. Annexure A provides information on the principles to be considered for an effective system of delegation, supported by Annexure B delegations template, Annexure C sub-delegations, Annexure D sub-delegations to acting positions, and Annexure E detailed delegation framework. Hierarchy of Delegations .The principles document clarifies the roles and responsibilities between role players in the delegation process in order to ensure a hierarchy of delegations from executive authorities to officials in the
i. Systems Theory Fesler (1980) states systems theory is important to clarify community development at the neighborhood level. As per Fesler, it affirms that each neighborhood government has a reason, objective or target in accomplishing better execution through amazing community development. Besides, the creator expounds resident 's execution should be measured against the expressed targets. Subjects ' investment in community development must take after every one of the necessities and methods by the government at a nearby level for viable contribution (Fesler, 1980).
For Jennings, “the Cabinet is the core of the constitutional system”. It is the Cabinet who decides the policies which are to be placed before the parliament for its approval. The Cabinet draws its powers from the constitution itself. 3.1 THE ROLE OF THE POLITICAL EXECUTIVE IN THE LOCAL SPHERE OF
In the Enhancement Structural Adjustment Facilities of the IMF and the International Development Agency (IDA) lending activities of the World Bank, criteria of good governance play a major role in assessing the effectiveness of economic and social policies of governments for sustainable development. These include, for example, financial transparency, the quality of the public sector, the effectiveness of public service delivery and the equity of taxation by the government. Also, the quality of the legal and institutional framework that permits and protects people to undertake independent activities within the private sector and civil society are part and parcel of good
According to the Black’s law dictionary, local government is defined as, ‘’The government of a particular locality, such as a city, or a country, a governing body at a lower level than the state government. The term includes a school district, fire district, transportation authority and any other special-purpose district or authority also termed municipal government.’’ On the other hand, local government is also defined in the local government Handbook as a ‘Government at the local level exercised through representative councils established by law to exercise specific powers within defined areas. These powers should give council substantial control over local affairs as well as the staff and institutional and financial powers to initiate and direct the provision of services and to determine and implement projects so as to complement the activities of the state and federal government in their areas, and to ensure, through devolution of functions to these councils and through the active participation of the people and their traditional institutions, and local initiatives and response to local needs and conditions are maximized”. The above definition is deeply rooted and has agreed with the United Nations
Meaning of citizenship in South African schools. 1.1. Citizenship, citizen and citizenship education. Citizenship is a symbolic relationship between the state and the citizen. Crick (2008: 126) stated that the types of citizen who is valued by society is determined in terms of the nature of his/her relationship with the government.
INTRODUCTION Service delivery is a way in which local government bring resources to the citizens by providing citizens basic needs. Section 153 of the constitution (1996) states that a municipality must structure and manage its administration and budgeting and planning processes to give priority to the basic needs of the community, and to promote the social development of the community. Municipal service delivery is governed by the integrated development policy, Management system, intergovernmental relations, the expanded Public works program, Batho Pele, the Budget and policy procedure. The municipality must not only provide service delivery to citizens but it must also grow the community by developing citizens. Purpose of IDP IN local government