Both lactose and maltose are complex carbohydrate macromolecules. 7. What is the role of starch and glycogen? a. Starch and glycogen are both storage molecules, they are designed to be stockpiled and saved until the organism needs them. Once needed these molecules can be broken down into glucose and used towards ATP production.
Malate dehydrogenase: Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is an enzyme in the citric acid cycle that catalyzes the conversion of malate into oxaloacetate by using NAD+ and vice versa and this is a reversible reaction. Malate dehydrogenase is not to be confused with malic enzyme, both are different enzymes malic enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of malate to pyruvate and producing NADPH. Malate dehydrogenase is also involved in gluconeogenesis, in which the synthesis of glucose from smaller molecules. Pyruvate in the mitochondria is based upon pyruvate carboxylase to form oxaloacetate, a citric acid cycle intermediate. The malate dehydrogenase reduces it to malate, and it then traverses the inner mitochondrial membrane to get the oxaloacetate out
Controlled Variables temperature, pH, sucrase + sucrose incubation time 4. Describe what is measured as an indicator of sucrase activity and why this is an indicator of sucrase activity. I believe glucose and fructose was used as an indicator because they are what produces sucrose and sucrose creates more sucrase activity. 5. Explain why denatured sucrase was used as a control.
For example, in yeast the anaerobic reactions make alcohol; however, in your muscles, they make lactic acid. One type of anaerobic respiration is fermentation. Fermentation is another anaerobic way for breaking down glucose that performs through many types of cells. It is a process that allows cells to gain energy from efferent types of carbohydrates while being without oxygen to form carbon dioxide. Respiration is the process where the glucose (food) that s in the cell creaks down into smaller (simpler) substances and produces carbon dioxide and energy.
Cell clusters in this organ are named by pancreatic islets. Each islet has alpha cells (make glucagon) and beta cells (make insulin). Those hormones are secreted into the circulatory system. Balancing the glucose level in the blood relies to the antagonistic effects of insulin and glucagon (Reece 2011, 910). References: Reece, Jane B., Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky and Robert B. Jackson.
So research is required to find out about the changes and how the available treatment can be modified to fight off these new strains that are developing. New species are identified all the time and research is required to learn more about them and their physiology. In conclusion, microbial physiology is a very crucial module to learn because it goes into detail with the microbes’ physiology making it easier to analyze and understand the data collected in an investigation using various methods and techniques, more especial in finding out more about a certain
The cellular structure of yeast is that of a eukaryotic cell as yeast cell contains a nucleus. Although its unicellular in nature it posses a cellular organization of that of a multi-cellular. This allows it to replicate faster and making it generally easily to manipulate it genetically. There are many applications for the use of yeast such as food supplements, brewery and biofuels. However in this essay we will focus more on the application of biofuels through the conversion of sugar to alcohol, otherwise known as fermentation.
Introduction Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides consist of (α-1,4)-linked α-D-glucopyranose units produced by bacterial digestion of cellulose. These structurally related natural products contain a central cavity that was lined by the skeletal carbons and ethereal oxygens of the glucose residues, which gave it a lipophilic character to a certain extent while the outer surface is hydrophilic. The 3D-structure of CDs are shaped like a truncated cone rather than perfect cylinders due to the chair conformation of their glucopyranose units. The hydroxyl functional groups are orientated on the cone exterior with the primary hydroxyl groups of the sugar residues at the narrow edge of the cone, and the secondary hydroxyl groups at the wider edge. The polarity of the cavity has been estimated to be similar to that of an aqueous
In HPC some of the hydroxyl groups in the repeating glucose units have been hydroxypropylated which forms -OCH2CH(OH)CH3 groups using propylene oxide. The average number of substituted hydroxyl groups per glucose unit is referred to as the degree of substitution (DS). In some cases hydroxypropyl group when added contains a hydroxyl group, this can also be etherified during preparation of HPC. In such case the number of moles of
Tanning industry. By analysing current potent and catalytic activity of the lipase enzyme, these are considered to be of great use in the class of industrial enzymes. After proteases and amylases which have a great use in industry, the lipases are regarded to have the third volume sales up, up to billions of dollars, showing their application flexibility and potent. They are also most chosen biocatalysts due to their unique characteristics such as chemo-, region- and enantioselectivities. These characteristics allow us to produce drugs, agroproducts and fine chemicals.