Importance Of Mangroves

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Mangroves of Sundarban and Their Management Tactics
What is Mangroves?
A mangrove is a tree, shrub, palm or ground fern, generally exceeding one half metre in height, that normally grows above mean sea level in the intertidal zone of marine coastal environments and estuarine margins. A mangrove is also the tidal habitat comprising such trees and shrubs. e.g. Rhizophora species & Avicennia species. The mangroves have Pneumatophores i.e. breathing roots through which it respires.
The word ‘mangrove’ refers to the habitat in the same way as we think of ‘rainforest’ with its mixture of plant types. Sometimes the habitat is called a ‘tidal forest’ or a ‘mangrove forest’ to distinguish it from the trees that are also called mangroves. (MangroveWatch
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Sunderbans is important as it is a barrier against sea erosion and also the habitat of wild animals like Bengal tigers, crocodiles and sea turtle. It is also a good tourist spot. Mangroves protect the coast from erosion, surge storms (especially during hurricanes), and tsunamis. Their massive root system is efficient at dissipating wave energy likewise they slow down tidal water enough that its sediment is deposited as the tide comes in and is not re-suspended when the tide leaves, except for fine particles. As a result, mangroves build their own environment. Because of the uniqueness of the mangrove ecosystems and their protection against erosion, they are often the object of conservation programs including national Biodiversity Action…show more content…
The Rock Python (Python molurus) is one of the rare snake species, which is said to have declined over recent years. IUCN has listed it as a "vulnerable species." It provides economic strength as wood is an important source of forest revenue and contributes to over 80% of the income generated in the Sundarbans.
What are the threats to this wetland?
The threats to the Sundarban mangrove eco-system are arising partly due to biotic pressure from the surunding environment and, partly due to human induced or natural changes in the upper catchments. These can be outlined as below:
• Recurrent coastal flooding due to climate change (global warming), changes in sea level (raise in sea level).
• Huge silt deposition, biodiversity loss and regeneration problems of obligate mangrove plants.
• Increasing population due to this extension of non-forestry land use into mangrove forest and increasing demand for timber and fuel wood for consumption.
• High salinity, low water table and acidity problem, loss of soil fertility, coastal erosion and a steep fall in fishery

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