Colour patterns are with green margins, a netted venation with colourful interveinal areas, or a solid leaf colour with contrasting spots or blotches. It is the chief floricultural tuber crop found in Florida. They are found in a range of leaf colours, colour patterns, size and shapes, and plant heights as a result of hybridization works which started in late 1800’s using Caladium bicolor (Ait.) Venten, C. picturatum C. Koch & Bouche , C. schombungkii
Species composition and distribution Along the tropics and sub-tropics mangroves occupy the landscape’s biogeomorphology (Kirk 1974). Mangroves are sensitive to frost and freezing, therefore mangroves are found with a latitudinal limitation (Clark 1997). With an increasing latitude mangroves biomass and tree height decrease because solar energy is a dominant control factor. Moreover, soil types, hydrodynamics, topography and water salinity are also crucial factors for growth and distribution of mangroves (Wheeler
Some of these benefits and functions of coral reefs are: the provision of fish and shellfish; bio-prospecting; raw materials for building; erosion control and storm protection; sand formation; and recreation and tourism (World Resources Institute [WRI], 2011). However, only some of these functions are classified as possessing direct economic value to the Caribbean (Burke et al, 2011). The main functions and benefits of coral reefs that are used for coral reef valuation are: tourism value, fish production and shoreline protection (Gustavson,
The most important part of wetland is the edge of the lake shallow waters, estuaries coastal areas are frequently submerged by a flood or tides. There are natural wetlands and artificial wetlands. There are different types of natural wetlands, which are swamp, marsh, shoals and bog. As a natural wetland, it serves as a good site for tourism, recreation, educational and scientific research. In terms of environmental value, it can serve buffer floods, protect the coast, recharge groundwater, filtrate and precipitate pollution water, offers aquatic animal nutrients and regulate climate.
This has been used in areas which depend on beach tourism so that the beach is not made unattractive. However, some amount of beach erosion still occurs and maintenance is difficult since they are offshore (Coastal Management, 2015). Soft engineering, the next type of coastal management, refers to ‘the use of ecological principles and practices to reduce erosion and achieve stability and safety of shorelines and rivers while enhancing habitats, aesthetics and saving money’ (Foster, 2010). Soft engineering options are less expensive, more sustainable, long term and have less impact on the environment (Debens, 2009). Beach nourishment is a technique used to reclaim or restore a lost beach or to create a new sandy shoreline.
Vegetation is also aesthetically appealing unlike the unsightly gabions and other hard-engineering measures. Mangroves also serve as a natural protection against floods that tend to destroy sea walls which are destroyed by waves of high energies. This can be seen in the example of
Its infestation has been reported to have adverse socio-economic impacts in different parts of the world. These effects include inter alia interrupted fishing activity, water supply and HEP generation, increase in the incidence of disease vectors, loss of biodiversity, increased eutrophication; referred to as cultural eutrophication (UNEP, 1993), deoxygenation and the reduction of the lake‘s scenic beauty (Harley et.al, 1996). Under heavy infestation the socio-economic structure, food supply and health of the communities residing around the lake are seriously disturbed (Gopal 1987, Wawire Unpubl., Onditi 1997, Otieno 1997 and Carvine 1997, Mboya
Beaches 1. Over the three fourth of the coastline is beach-fringed, the principle determinant of these being waves, supply of beach materials, contour and lithology of the coastline, and nature of coastal and sub-marine landforms. Most of the beaches of the island are barriers backed by lagoons, swamps and ill-drained terrains and are sometimes contained between headlands or river outfalls. Some barriers are island at both ends, e.g. Karatiu Island.
The plant is naturalized in Florida, but it is mostly grown in Australia, the West Indies, Southeast Asia and South and East Africa. M. leuconeura is indigenous to the Brazilian Rainforest. Marantaceae is a pantropically distributed family, most of the species (80%) found in the neotropical area, compared with 11% and 9% in Asia and Africa respectively (Hammel, 1986). Cultivation has spread to numerous other tropical countries, including Brazil, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, India, and the