Paul Ehrlich (1854- 1915) was a German scientist who worked in field of immunology, hematology and chemotherapy. In 1891, medical micro-organism had discovered by scientist, such as streptococci and staphylococci, these two organisms caused of disease and they began to examine them by microscopes. Paul Ehrlich took a part as a worker in Robert Koch’s bacteriology lab, he searched for a chemical that could stain specific microbe and produce more visible microbe under the microscope. Then, he also stated that the chemical which they searched could not only stain but also destroy the microbes but not damage the patient’s body. This chemical is what they called the “Magic Bullets”.
Patient Risk Factors for Health Care–Associated Infections Transmission of infection within a health care setting requires three elements: a source of infecting microorganisms, a susceptible host, and a means of transmission for the microorganism to the host. Source of Microorganisms During the delivery of health care, patients can be exposed to a variety of exogenous microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa) from other patients, health care personnel, or visitors. Other reservoirs include the patient’s endogenous flora (e.g., residual bacteria residing on the patient’s skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, or respiratory tract) which may be difficult to suppress and inanimate environmental surfaces or objects that have become contaminated (e.g., patient room touch surfaces, equipment, medications). The most common sources of infectious agents causing HAI, described in a
INTODUCTION What is a forensic pathologist? What is a pathologist? A pathologist is a physician trained in the medical specialty of pathology. Pathology is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis of disease and causes of death by means of laboratory examination of body fluids (clinical pathology) cell samples, (cytology) and tissues (anatomic pathology). The autopsy is the procedure utilized to study the dead.
SectionІІ: Overview of infection prevention for general clinical practice: According to Tietjen 2008, microorganisms are the causative agents of infection. They include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. In the context of infection prevention, bacteria can be further divided into three categories: vegetative (e.g., staphylococcus), mycobacteria (e.g., tuberculosis), and endospores (e.g., tetanus), which are the most difficult to kill. He also added that asepsis or aseptic technique is a general term used to describe the combination of efforts made to prevent entry of microorganisms into any area of the body where they are likely to cause infection. The goal of asepsis is to reduce to a safe level, or eliminate, the number of microorganisms
Tuberculosis infection can now be confirmed using a new urine test developed by a group of researchers. The new urine test uses a type of dye on tiny molecular cages that contain a sugar type that coats tuberculosis bacteria. The researchers reported that the test can be used to diagnose anyone at any stage of the disease. Tuberculosis is a respiratory disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease primarily infects the lungs but as it progress, the infection can spread to other parts of the body.
Blood test is a common test to be performed by doctors to diagnose the health status of the patients. Many diseases can be known with the results of the tests. The test helps doctors to treat the patient according to the patients’ respective diseases. The appropriate measures will be done by the doctors to treat their patients. There are many type of blood test in the world.
Is the question you should ask yourself. Science is half of the medicine. A great example is in dermatology in you first are required to study the anatomy and physiology of the human body (which are sciences). You must also experiment on the skin using several chemicals to treat this disease and prevent it from further growth. Then we develop theories and try to justify the reason these abnormalities occur on the skin.
There will be tests so that the doctor will be able to know the source of your anemia. Some of these tests are blood chemistry test, reticulocyte count which is a kind of blood test, another blood test to see your iron levels, bone marrow test, and fecal occult blood test. Your doctor may use the outcomes of these tests, along with your physical exam and medical information, to be able to have a knowledge about the cause of your anemia. Sometimes no cause can be identified other than anemia of chronic disease. This type of anemia is mostly found in people with long-lasting problems like cancer, congestive heart failure, or inflammatory diseases.
This theory holds that an illness is due to infection by a single microbe ultimately culminating in a specific clinical disease. This disease, in turn, may be cured by administering a contrary medicine such as an antibiotic which restores health through microbial killing. Modern medicine uses rational explanation of natural events in terms of cause and effect. The cause here is held as natural which is the germ and this microorganism is responsible for illnesses and diseases. The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases.
The common source of surveillance data is reports of disease cases received from health-care providers and from communities. Health facility monitor notifiable diseases occurrence on a routine basis. Notifiable diseases routinely monitored include malaria, cholera, rabies, tuberculosis. (Dicker, 1992) Notifiable disease surveillance is done in most health facilities as a way of tracking the occurrence of
The patient has since returned to his primary care physician to find out what is going on. After Terrance visited with his PCP a sample was collected and necessary test were performed to determine what pathogen or bacteria was the cause of Terrance 's infection. In order to have a better understanding of what they are working with and how to
Discussion Post Week ten NURS 6501, N-21 Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are usually caused by bacteria and are common. Symptoms of both upper and lower infections are similar; therefore, it is important for advanced practice nurses (APNs) to be able to determine the pathophysiology of upper and lower UTIs. The purpose of this discussion is to evaluate the similarities and differences between upper and lower UTIs, clinical manifestations, treatments, and factors affecting all of these things. UTIs are infections that may occur anywhere in the urinary tract such as the urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys. Typically UTIs are caused by bacteria from the gut flora and are inflammation of the urinary epithelium.
In the laboratory, identification of an unknown bacterium is often necessary. In the lab, a random sample consisting of three different bacteria was selected. The sample contained one gram-positive, one gram-negative paracolon, and one gram-negative coliform. The purpose of the experiment is to identify each of the three species that the mixture contained. After receiving an unknown mixture, the sample was streaked for isolation onto TSA, blood agar, and MacConkey plates.
Some of the laboratory test that are used are the antinuclear antibody test or ANA this test detects an antibody present in serum of the patients with systemic lupus ertrhematosus or SLE and other autoimmune disease. So if one was looking in a patient 's chart and sees that ANA is in the file the medical professional will understand and know that the antinuclear antibody test has been performed on the patient. Even though there are other medical terms that have the abbreviations that are ANA a medical professional needs to understand the difference, and know how to read the right terms with abbreviations. There are other procedures that are included such as rheumatoid factor test or RF, this is also where serum is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Now that we have gone over some of the laboratory test now let us look into some of the clinical procedures.
The organism that was successfully cultured from the first lab was use to streak into other plates. Samples from the previously cultured MAC and blood agar were streaked on two different sides of an EMB, SS, and MSA plate. Samples of bacteria were also used to inoculate Citrate and TSI media. The inoculation of TSI and Citrate media were as follows: The materials were gathered, which include the previously cultured media, an inoculation needle and the Citrate and TSI medium. This procedure occurred in the presence a Bunsen burner.