In this version, integrativeness and attitudes toward the learning situation are both correlated variables that help forming the basis of the motivation to learn a second language. According to this version motivation and aptitude are two variables that have an influence on language achievement. This figure also displays that an instrumental orientation (instrumentality) could also support motivation in an uneven way. Language achievement and language anxiety have reciprocal influences on each other, indicating that language anxiety develops in individuals as a consequence of experiences in the classroom and then has negative effects on subsequent language acquisition. The figure below (Diagram 2.4) also comprises of some measures from the AMTB that evaluates all of the affective constructs.
The major objectives of this research were to examine the association between students’ thinking styles and the preferred learning environments constructed by teacher interpersonal behavior. Furthermore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between teachers’ thinking styles and the preferred learning environments constructed by teacher interpersonal behavior, investigate the effect of teachers’ interpersonal behavior on students’ thinking styles in learning, and study the contributions of students’ thinking styles to learning achievement. This study found that students’ and teachers’ thinking styles could predict the preferred learning environments constructed by teacher interpersonal behavior, the learning activities provided the opportunities to train students in the use of their teachers’ preferred thinking styles, students’ thinking styles and learning achievement were related. Furthermore, the results of this study showed that students ' thinking styles changed in all classes of experimental groups, with teachers ' teaching in teaching being the main factor
It’s also important to remember that intrinsic motivation aids students’ learning and that the quality of classroom interaction matters a great deal. According to Deci and Ryan (1985), intrinsic motivation is linked to elementary human needs for proficiency, independence, and understanding. Innately motivated deeds are those that the apprentice engages in for their own welfare due to their significance, awareness, and challenge. Such activities present the greatest promising chances for knowledge. Learning is the result of motivation which at the same time is the product of one of these needs or a combination of them.
Next, classroom learning motivation where it refers to the motivation needed in classroom situation or any specific situation. This motivation could be influenced by factors associated with language class. He stated that both of this motivation is very operative but then it operates on individual at the given time
Second of all, learning a foreign language can have a positive impact on children 's social interaction. In social interactions, learning a foreign language has many benefits. For example, it has many advantages related to communication. Children can establish new connections with others, learn new people and new cultures while learning languages. Todays, communication with technology is easier than ever, so language can provide socialization.According to Genesee and Cloud (1998),"we see that one of the most
As stated by Brown (2007), errors are the “idiosyncrasies in the language of the learner that are direct manifestations of a system within which a learner is operating at the time” (p.258). Error correction is one of the core areas in the field of English language teaching. According to Amara (2015), it is “seen as a form of feedback given to learners on their language use”. Correcting
The type of task used in instruction may positively influence learners’ performance. Hence, the curriculum or course designer tries to create tasks that foster a language-learning context in which the learners can be involved and supported in their efforts to communicate fluently and effectively (Ellis, 2003; Willis, 1996). Among the ways to create this language learning context, task-Based Instruction (TBI) presents opportunities to employ effective and meaningful activities and thus promotes communicative language use in the language class. While some researchers suggest that the traditional methods include prescribed steps that provide teachers with a clear schedule of what they should do (Rivers, cited in Skehan, 1996). Other researchers emphasize the importance of task-based approaches to communicative instruction which leave teachers and learners free to find their own procedures to maximize communicative effectiveness (Skehane, 1996; prabhu, 1987; Long &Nunan,
According to Gardner (2001), motivation includes three elements; effort (the effort to learn a language), desire (wanting to achieve a goal) and positive affect (enjoy the activities of learning the language). The role of orientation, which Gardner refers to as a “goal” aims to arouse motivation and direct it to achieve the goals (Gardner, 1985). Two types of motivation— integrative oriented and instrument oriented— was introduced by Gardner and have been discussed and explored in L2 motivation research extensively. According to Gardner (1985), integrative oriented refers to a positive attitude towards the L2 community and the desire to approach the community and even become a member of that society. Instrumental orientation is defined as learning an L2 for gain practical benefits, such as a better job or a higher
Language objectives refer to language skills that learners are expected to acquire in the classroom. Objectives that are concerned with strategies for communicating, learning, and critical thinking are referred to as "strategic objectives". Learning process are “conscious processes and techniques that facilitate the comprehension, acquisition, and retention of new skills and concepts” (Chamot and O’Malley 1987). According to Chamot and Michael O’Malley, these may include metacognitive strategies (such as selective attention), cognitive strategies (such as summarizing and elaboration), or socio-affective strategies (such as questioning for clarification). Socio-affective objectives refer to changes in learner’s attitudes or social behaviours that result from classroom instruction (e.g.
Thus, teachers should know that the attitude of learners towards the learning process highly influence their potential to learn the language, and helps in increasing their motivation. Teachers opt to use rewards and punishments to create a good learning environment and also to gain their students’ interest towards learning English. However, rewards and punishments affect people differently depending on how they perceived them. 2.2 REWARDS System of rewards has been widely used in teaching and learning progress. (Yuan, 2012) According to Armstrong (2005), one of the most important concerns of the usage of rewards is that, it can be used to motivate people to perform better.