The Magna Carta, signed in 1215, mainly secured liberties for England’s elite classes, but it has helped the fundamental principles of common law in constitutions around the world. The Magna Carta's influence on the constitution allowed specific rights from it be included in the US Constitution's Bill of Rights. An example of this would be the similarities between the Magna Carta's thirty ninth clause and the Bill of Rights seventh and fifth amendment. “No free man shall be seized or imprisoned … except by the lawful judgement of his equals or by the law of the land” (Magna Carta, clause 39).This clause refers to the guarantee that courts will
Liberalism in international relations is represented by contradicting claims about the necessity of the conflict as a way of resolving contention among members of the international community and vice versa highlights the possibility of peace between independent states. American presidnet Ronald Regan in his speech beore the British Parliament stated that government based on respect for individual freedoms is reflected in its foreign policy of restraint and peaceful inclinations. (Doyle, 1997, page 205) Throughout the times, liberalism has gone through many changes and has established different varieties of the theory. The first stage of liberalism, known as philosophic liberalism, lasted from the 17th to the early 19th century. A philosopher, John Locke was the first one to point out liberal thoughts and views.
To what extent is it accurate to label the governance system of British Imperialism in the 19th and 20th century 'indirect '? Britain was the greatest colonial empire followed up closely enough by France in the XIXth century up to the XXth. Britain was also one of the first major colonial powers and therefore lead the way for the different types of ruling such as direct rule, indirect rule or a mix of the two. The oxford dictionary (1) defines indirect rule as such: “A system of government of one nation by another in which the governed people retain certain administrative, legal, and other powers.”, the nation being the colonizing power and the other being the colonized. On the other side direct rule is defined as having “centralized administrations […] that stressed policies of assimilation.” and “ European administrators were present at all levels of government – even down to local affairs” (2).
Therefore, it all thanks to Raffles’ strategic vision that made him select Singapore to be the suitable location realizing British economic and political ambition in the region. One can hardly imagine how Singapore would have been without the family of Raffles. Dr. Ernest Chew described it as “a sparsely inhabited island, on the margins of the Dutch colonial empire in the East Indies” Argument 2: order and law of British system Raffles developed a local regulation organization to ensure the peace and order for the newborn settlement. Members were chosen from British inhabitants to act under the representatives of the British Government. This regulation resulted in the abandon and control of gambling, slavery and cock-fighting and made pawnbrokers subject to licensing regulation.
Uganda is an interior country situated in East Africa, it attained it status as a Republic in 1962 when it received its independence from British colonial rule. Prior to 1962, Uganda’s justice system was powerful and respected, judicial hearings were impartial and well regarded. The system has since become riddled with exploitation and has increasingly become an inefficient justice system; however, with the election of President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni and the Ugandan Police Force, focus has shifted in an effort to reduce crime. The Uganda Police Force upholds heavy police placements in metropolitan areas that aids in the prevention of criminal and terrorist activities. While the increased police presence has made progress toward professionalization
They established mainly indirect rule, which is a form of colonialism consisting in letting native leaders continue to govern their traditional lands, as long as they paid taxes to the colonial administration according to the essay In the Balance: Themes in Global History. This opposed itself to direct colonialism where administration was controlled directly by the colonizing power (Ibid). Imperialism is defined as a policy of extending a country 's power and influence through diplomacy or military force. Even tough, it is accurate to define British imperialism’s governance system in the 19th and 20th century as indirect seen through Britain’s African colonies with the establishment of indirect rule in West Africa like in Nigeria thanks to explorers like Lord Lugar, it isn’t to
The twin island state of Trinidad and Tobago has a legal system that is modeled after that of the Common Law System that originated in England. The term ‘legal system’ as a concept is difficult to define as it would involve focusing on the mechanisms used to enforce the law of a particular country as well as the unique features of each individual legal system model as compared to other legal system models . The 1797 loss of Trinidad by Spain to Britain ushered in a change in the socio-political structure of the island, due to the arrival of “lawyers…government officials” that would serve to instigate the replacement of the Spanish Civil Law System with that of English Common Law . This was merely the part of the colonization process which was intended to alter the social, economic and political framework of the country. The imposition of the Common Law Legal System in Trinidad and Tobago proved to define the legal framework of
Mahatma Gandhi’s ‘Hind Swaraj’ is an annotation of his fundamental elements of thought. He wrote this book back in 1909 in his native language, Gujarati while travelling from London to South Africa. Gandhi translated the book in English after the British government banned the Gujarati publication; the English version wasn’t imposed with legal restrictions. With the Enlightenment Period and the discovery of the ‘New World’, there was a revised approach to the politics of society and the nature of man. The fundamental arbiters of change from the Old World to the New World were: Capitalism, Colonialism, Modernity and Nationalism.
7, issue 2, 2010, 204.]. Also another justice, Benjamin N Cardozo defined law as a “principle or role of conduct so established as to justify a prediction with reasonable certainty that it will be enforced by the courts if its authority is challenged[ E. Meiners, The Legal Environment of Business (12 ed.) Arlington: Cengage Learning, 2014]. Legal philosopher Hamann kantorowicz characterized law very broadly as “a body of social rules prescribing external conduct and considered justiciable”[ J. Trevino, The Sociology of Law: Classical and Contemporary Perspectives (2 ed.). New Brunswick and New Jersey: Transaction Publisher, 2001].
It is in relation to this that Cecil John Rhodes through the BSAC took advantage of the Lobengula`s superficial knowledge of the conniving world and the annexing quest of the Europeansand it is through the Royal Charter that Cecil John Rhodes made use of 196 pioneers who comprised of ex-military, ex-police and ex-navy from across Europe for him to execute an effective occupation that in turn would lead to the sphere of influence as per requirements of the Berlin Colonial Conference. Signing of the concession prior the charter also provided a clause that nothing contained within the charter shall prejudice or affect any other legal and existing concessions or agreements which may have been made by any of the chiefs or tribes aforesaid, and in particular nothing therein contained would prejudice or affect certain concessions granted in and subsequent to the year 1880 relating to the territory usually known as the district of the Tati, nor shall anything therein contained be construed as giving any jurisdiction, administrative or otherwise, within the said district of the Tati, this then would lead to an understanding as to why the Rudd