According to Corder (1971) mistakes are deviation due to performance factors such as memory limitations, spelling pronunciations, fatigue, emotional strain, etc. They are typically random and are readily they can be self-corrected when attention is called. Whereas, an error is the use of linguistic item in that a fluent or native speaker of the language regards it as showing faulty or incomplete learning. In other words, it occurs because the learner does not know what is correct, and thus it cannot be self-corrected. These are systematic and consistent deviances.
this study was done to find the most frequent errors and find their sources whether they are inter- lingual or intra- lingual in students with Lori mother tongue when speaking English . Review of the literature . Richards (1971) states that many of the learners ' errors relates to the strategies that they use in language acquisition and the reciprocal interference of the target language items. Error Analysis (EA)would allow teachers to figure out what areas should be focused on and what kind of attention is needed in an L2 classroom(keshavarz). So the language teachers can be better able to develop curriculum and select materials that can facilitate L2 learning processes (Richards, 1995; Schachter & Celce-Murcia,1977).Errors are considered to be systematic ,governed by rule ,and appear because a learner’s knowledge of the rules of the target language is incomplete .thus they are indicative of the learners linguistic system at a given stage of language learning .they are likely to occur repeatedly and not recognized by the learner (Gass&selinker
They are mother tongue interference, over-generalization and errors caused by the teaching method or the teaching material. Meanwhile according to Norrish (1983) the causes of errors are carelessness, translation, and first language interferences. Another proponents, Lin (2012), mentions that there are some major trigger the reason of errors; they are inter-lingual errors, intra-lingual and other
There are various functions in communication, most of which are practiced in our daily lives, such as the communication functioning in the concept of persuasion. Essentially, persuasion is a communication process involving persuasive (sender) trying to influence the decision of the persuaded person (receiver) in order to make a change of attitude. Persuasive communication is a techniques which is intended to convince others to think or act in accordance with what the sender wants. In general, persuasive communication is a process of delivery of orders with the purpose of strengthening or changing responses or attitudes given by others to someone. Persuasive communication is used in various fields, including marketing, events, campaigns, and many more.
2. To participate in conversations and simulations using appropriate strategies to initiate, maintain and conclude communication, producing understandable discourse and adapting to the characteristics of the situation and communicative intention. This criterion assesses the ability to participate in conversations with diverse communicative
The first obvious barrier in negotiation between the different nationalities could be a language. Even English language which is mostly used in negotiation is spoken and interpreted differently by the non-native speakers. Indeed, native speakers from England, Australia, and the United States can also have a trouble understanding one another. To avoid the misunderstanding during the negotiation it is important not to use the informal words or phrases, which are typical for the native people. For instance: the word- Ride, that means a roll in
Compromising can be such a bad weapon within negotiating the deal because by compromise means that the negotiators is lowering its interest and this condition will just end up without any creativity of effort to achieve the interests or resolution. In order to have such a smooth win-win negotiation, the negotiators should also focus on the principled negotiation. There are seven important elements of principled negotiations written by Roger Fisher and William Ury such
Moreover Xia (2006) proposed that communicative language teaching is an excellent methodology or approach in teaching and learning second or the foreign language. Besides that, there were plenty of new textbooks were published basic on the communicative language teaching approaches. Paraiba (1990) mentioned a statement that a solid theory or approach like communicative language teaching is not always suitable in many special context. The statement were stated based on several reasons such like the variation in social situations, different organizations and some other reasonable reasons. Functional-notional approach was the earlier version of communicative language teaching.