It examines what the Government is doing, creates new laws, retains the power to tax fixation and it is where the concerns of the day are debated. It is bicameral, consisting of an upper house called the House of Lords and a lower house called the House of Commons. 2. Parliament History We can trace back the origins of the British Parliament to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 8th century. There were two different meetings: on one side the Witan with clergymen, barons and people chosen by the king, and on the other Moots were local meetings of lords, sheriffs, bishops and commoners.
Definition of law Law is a system of rules that are enforced through social institutions to govern behaviour. Laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or by judges through binding precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.
It is this organ which implements the laws passed by the legislature and the government’s policies. It is comprised of the president who is the head of the state, vice president, the prime minister who is the head of the government and the ministers. (K,K. Ghai. Political theory and Contemporary International Relations ) Parliament exercises oversight of the executive branch to ensure that it undertakes its responsibilities in exercising various policies for the benefit of the country.
The Senate and the House of Representatives are part of this. And the last is the Judicial branch which applies and interprets the law in the name of the state. It is headed by the Supreme Court which has the Chief of Justice. An organized framework of the officials in a country makes the jobs and responsibilities of the government possible because it is well-divided to the branch capable of handling an issue. The checks and balances between three main branches of government ensure that power is not abused and mistakes are corrected.
Where the constitution provides for the separation of powers of executive and legislature, the members who sits in the parliament in the legislative power to vote for a law are the very person who also sits in the executive in their executive power to implement the law they themselves voted: it can be said that the executive is therefore controlling the legislature and vice versa. Ministers are the one who make the policy and draft the bill, so when the bill is going through the Parliamentary stage, the member of the Parliament will try to support the Minister’s proposal because they are in same
The Westminster political system in essence is a system of rules and procedures that dictate the way through which legislatures grant the executive branch its legitimacy. This political system have been subsequently exported from the UK to multiple Commonwealth countries, In which its primary advantage lies in the system’s ability to integrate effective governance with accountability. One important aspect of the parliamentary political system is the separation between the head of the government and the head of the state, in which in the UK the monarch has only ceremonial powers, while the formal head of the government serves as a member of legislature. parliamentarianism is favored by both politicians and academics. This is due to the
• all directors are equally responsible for actions and decisions the Board; • Board should appoint audit, remuneration and nomination committees. The Committee mandated the appointment of audit committee based on the New York Stock Exchange audit committee requirement, report of the U.S Tread Way commission and its positive experiences on the U.S stock market. Comply or Explain The Cadbury Committee summarized it recommendations in a Code of Best Practice later called as Cadbury Code. The Code contained nineteen clauses under four headings viz Board of Directors, non-executive directors, executive directors and reporting, and controls. The Committee mandated that all listed companies should state the compliance of the Code or give reasons for non-compliance in the annual report.
Introduction Law can generally be described as a set of rules, developed over a long period of time that regulates interactions that people have with each other, and which sets standards of conduct between individuals and between individuals and the government and which are enforceable through sanction. (Lee, 2017) To the layman, law is understood as being a general rule of conduct. However, the word ‘law’ has been given many different definitions by lawyers. Section 3 of the Interpretation Acts 1948 and 1967 states that ‘law’ has the meaning assigned by Article 160(2) of the Federal Constitution. The term ‘law’ is in turn defined by Article 160(2) of the Federal Constitution 1957 to include the written law, common law in so far as it is
It is the power exerted by the courts of a country to examine the actions of the legislatures, executive and administrative arms of government and to ensure that such actions conform to the provisions of the nation’s Constitution. Judicial review has two important functions, like, of legitimizing government action and the protection of constitution against any undue encroachment by the gov¬ernment. The power of Judicial Review is incorporated in Articles 226 and 227 of the Constitution insofar as the High Courts are concerned. In regard to the Supreme Court Articles 32 and 136 of the Constitution, the judiciary in India has come to control by judicial review every aspect of governmental and public
First of all, we must determine the size of each district and to know how many seats will belong to it. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the structure of voting, that is, if the citizens vote for individual candidates or for party lists. Moreover, the electoral form that governs the country in question must be clear: whether majority or proportional representation. The first of both is based on the "first-past-the-post", which means that the candidate who receives the largest number of votes in a district is given a seat in the Parliament, and analogously to the rest of the districts. In the proportional representation, however, the seats in a given district are awarded in proportion to vote share obtained; As Mirabeau defined, “proportional representation is a mirror of the nation whose purpose is to find its true voice” (Oeuvres Completes, 1834, vol.