Teachers can reflect on each student’s level of achievement, as well as on specific inclinations of the group, to customize their teaching plans., after receiving this information. Assessment is used as a research to find out as much as they can about what their students know, and what confusions, and prejudgment, or gaps they might have. Continuing assessment provides day-to-day feedback about the learning and teaching process. Assessment can reinforce the efficacy of teaching and learning. It also encourages the understanding of teaching as a productive process that evolves over time with feedback and input from students.
On the other hand, if the course does not organize to engage the learners ' interest or 'based on unsuitable or irreverent samples of language and units of description will have low motivational value for the students ' (Mackay & Mountford, 1978:10). So as a result the more the course satisfies learners ' learning needs the more they become confident and involved. Responding to learning needs in course design is valuable because it shows learners the right rout to utilize their present knowledge effectively enabling them to perform well in the
The Rationale Feedback is closely related to learning and teaching theories making it a significant element in learning despite the theories that may be adapted. In the learning environment, the purpose of feedback may vary but the tutor is bestowed with the responsibility to provide positive reinforcement to encourage students’ applications of learning in new environments. With feedback, both the student and tutors get to a common ground where success in learning can be quantified. Literature Review From
Introduction Recent research on classroom assessment focused on the interactions between assessment and classroom learning with a hope that improvement in classroom assessment will result in effective learning. As a result, a variety of alternatives in assessment were proposed and researched. Alternatives in assessment have become popular for that they require students to perform, produce, and create; focus on processes as well as products; tap into higher level thinking and problem-solving skills; and provide information about both the strengths and weaknesses of students (Brown & Hudson, 1998, p.654). They are also popular as they establish an ongoing circular association among three significant aspects of education: teaching, assessment
Action Research Methodology Due to the nature of the present study, the focus was put on an action research. It is therefore of paramount importance to review the available literature. This type of research is widely believed to be a reflective inquiry based on systematic practice undertaken by the researcher who is the teacher at the same time with the overall aim of changing and improving his own teaching and learning process. In this regard, Burns (2010:5) quoted Cornwell’s definition (1999:05) of action research: … a self-reflective, systematic and critical approach to enquiry by participants who are at the same time members of the research community. The aim is to identify problematic situations or issues considered by the participants to be worthy of investigation in order to bring about critically informed changes in practice.
Those types are positive and negative. It depends on whether it has a beneficial or harmful impact on educational practices (Hughes, 1989). Pearson (1988) states that good tests can be utilized and designed as beneficial teaching-learning activities so as to encourage a positive teaching-learning process. Meanwhile, Davis (1985) argues that a creative and innovative test can quite advantageously result in a syllabus alteration or a new syllabus. Tests are encouraged to promote the idea of lifelong learning and encourage people to learn English (Language Testing and Training Centre, 2008).
(2010) states that while there are some positive attributes to standardised testing such as improving test scores, encouraging higher-level thinking and providing feedback to students, there are also a number of negative effects. These negative effects involve narrowing of the curriculum so that the focus is mainly on test content causing teachers assessments to become more summative rather than formative, incresed stress and anxiety on students and incresed dropout rates amoung lower achieving students. While this form of ‘achievement’ test can have very negative effects on students in lower secondary education, Moss (2012) suggests that older students in secondary education respond positively to summative assessments as they are able to learn during the assessment process and they also find the work motivating. It appears that the main issue with standarised testing lies within lower secondary education and the impact it has on students not just within the classroom and nationally but also
(Ritualo, 2000). This work would serve educators, particularly in assessing students, Supervisors and Curriculum Planners to find understanding the outcome of assessment (traditional and authentic) on science appreciative and learning conclusions of scholars. Classroom assessment practices are based on teacher beliefs, training, knowledge and skills in educational assessment. Understanding teachers’ classroom assessment practices remains pivotal for informed educational decisions that can be made about students’ learning outcomes. The results of this study may provide valuable insights for understanding teachers’ classroom assessment practices and needs for teachers in and other parts of the world.
Thus, teachers should pay attention to the high importance of motivation along with its types. Language teachers have to be familiar with the character as well as the personality of each student they are dealing with. - Keblawi 2014, carried out a study entitled: " A review of language learning motivation theories." Keblawi traces in brief the history of language learning motivation (LLM) by reviewing the main motivation theories and models that have affected its development, as well as defining the concept of motivation and on the emergence of the interest in LLM. No doubt that motivation is crucial for students' learning.
Corder has dealt with the phenomenon in three of his sources. Corder ( 1967) indicates that the value of errors not only interests linguists but the instructors who are directly involved in students process of learning and the language learners as well adding that although scrutinising those errors will base a better understanding to the nature of language, especially to the learners ' instinctive language system, they shape a remedial foundation to language teaching/learning process. In his article Significance of Learners ' Errors Corder (1974) again touches upon the importance of error analysis stating that those errors expose the problematic parts teachers and textbook designers may find worth observing. He says" errors can tell the teacher how far towards the goal has the learner progressed and consequently , what remains for him or her to learn, so, students ' errors are valuable feedbacks"(Corder, 1974: 125). I his later book Error Analysis and Interlanguage, Corder for one more time reaffirms the usefulness of Error analysis.