Introduction Attribution Theory has played a big part in social-psychological research. Unfortunately, the term attribution is confusing. According to one meaning, forming an attribution is making a dispositional/ personality inference from behavior; according to another meaning, forming an attribution is giving an explanation. The focus of this paper is on the comparison of Kelley’s covariation theory and Jones and Davis correspondent inference theory. Approaching from a perspective almost the same as that of Jones and Davis.
It is also important to develop speaking and listening skills together because most of the time in real life these skills are needed at the same time. In addition to speaking, teachers can ask students practice writing a topic related to the listening. Thus, combining those skills will help prepare students for listening situations in real life where several skills often need to be used simultaneously. Harmer (2007) suggests “live listening” can be applied for listening lesson instead of using audio material story-telling, interviews, and conversations. Adding to that, Doff mentions that “using English for chatting to the class, for giving instructions and explanations” will provide students with very useful listening practice.
The importance of listening for details, in listening comprehension, highlights the need to listen for details in a specific situation (such as passing on messages) and to be able to communicate those details to others. This is an important listening skill in many works and social situations. Using the strategy of listen for details in the classroom when students listening recording, they will be able to identify the important parts of a message to convey and discard the detail that is not important and relevant. Besides, the learners will communicate the important details in a message and communicate them successfully. When students listen for details to get the main idea of the passage they are interested in a specific kind of information.
It also encourages the understanding of teaching as a productive process that evolves over time with feedback and input from students. This creates good classroom rapport. Students who are experiencing difficulties in learning may gain from the administration of a analytic test, which will be able to notice learning issues such as reading comprehension problems, an inability to remember written or spoken words, hearing or speech difficulties, and problems with hand–eye synchronization (Lynch,
5.0 Conceptual/ theoretical Framework The conceptual framework are two types of approaches being practiced by teachers which are Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Grammar Translation Method (GTM) depends on teachers. Both approaches have different effects for the competency in speaking. Students gain high competency in speaking with the practice of CLT approach, but low competency with GTM approach. The study asses into the activities conducted in class and lesson presentation from teachers by practicing CLT. Data gathered through the classroom observation and interview and being analyzed based on the conceptual framework.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the activities, tasks and the methods to promote students’ oral skills. In teaching, people who know a language are referred to as “speakers of that language so of all the four skills ( listening, speaking, reading and writing) speaking seems an important component of language classes. Speaking skill is important because it is basic for communication. There are many theories about language teaching but when it comes to practice, some teachers can’t decide the types of activities or tasks that are applicable for their learners. My motivation to study this topic is to help teachers to use communicative activities in classroom teachings.
- The role of the teacher is that of facilitator and guide. Therefore, students are encouraged to construct meaning through genuine linguistic interaction with others. To sum up, communication language teaching can help students to use the target language as much as possible. This approach places great emphasis on helping students create meaning rather than helping them develop perfectly grammatical structures. As mentioned above, my personal language teaching methodology may be described as a mixed method.
On this note, it is of great importance to realise that interpersonal communication is a mutual reinforcing we engage in together with those that we communicate with. In simpler terms through interpersonal communication one is able to affect others by what they say or do. For instance when teaching the reading macro skill in English language learners are most likely learn most of the aspects such as pronunciations, reading speed as well as phonation through imitating the teacher. Therefore, it is through interpersonal communication that teachers are able to teach that which they might not be in good position to explain verbally through leading as an example. Apart from that, the teacher is able to recognise the attention he is getting from the learners as the lesson unfolds which will assist him to emphasise on key concepts through gestures and facial expression for consolidation.
Some of these activities are related to those carried out at pre- and while-listening work but some may not be related to them at all and show a totally independent part of the listening session. Post-listening activities allow the learners to reflect on the language from the text; on sound, grammar and vocabulary so the students have time to think, discuss or write (Rixon, 1986, p. 64- 97 and Underwood, 1989, p. 78). The post-listening stage is a place that the teacher can determine the degree of the students’ understanding about the material they have listened to, but designing the tasks in the best way is a very important issue. Post-listening activities are necessary because they extend learners’ listening skill. Well-planned post-listening activities offer opportunities to learners to connect what they have heard before to their own ideas.
(Li, 2014) Lexical chunks depend on the possibility that language is comprised of grammatical lexis rather than lexicalized grammar. Numerous specialists and teachers have been doing research on lexical chunks, finding that chunk assumes an essential part in our ordinary correspondence, making commitments to the straightforwardness, precision and familiarity with tuning in, talking, perusing and composing. Besides, chunks are powerful approach to enhance students' English writing