C., 1992, “Guidelines for the evaluation of language education”. In J. C. Alderson & A. Beretta (Eds. ), Evaluating second language education (pp.274-304). Cambridge, England: CambridgeUniversity Press. Alderson, J. C., & D. Wall, 1993, “Does washback exist?”, Applied Linguistics, 14 (115-129).
Sounds must be examined and evaluated in order to comprehend their purpose in a certain language. In phonological analysis, there is a need to establish whether two sounds in a given language belong to two separate phonemes or are allophones of a single phoneme. In order to gather this information, an examination of the distribution of the sounds are done. The distribution of a phone is a set of phonetic environments in which it occurs. (lang files) The contrastive distribution or complementary distribution of two sounds in a language is dependent upon the environments in which they belong.
3- affricates The two affricate phonemes of English are/č/and/j/. /č/is voiceless and fortis and in this way it has the impact of shortening a first vowel in a last position. /j/is voiced and lenis and can get to be devoiced at last. /č/like voiceless stops is somewhat suctioned and unreleased in the same positions (Roach, 200 4- Nasals m, n , ŋ/are the nasals of English. /ŋ/in English, similar to its equivalent in Kurdish, is not viewed as a phoneme on the piece of a few creators (Roach, 2000).
Even though all of the elements of interest must interact, it is possible to differentiate individual elements that compose a meaningful language. Troike states phonology as an element of a language used in the acquisition of a second language. Phonology is that element of a language that shows the different sounds of a speech thereby creating different meanings. It defines the possible sequences of vowels and consonants in what is referred to as a syllable structure. Further, phonology deals with intonation patterns that include
Syllables in English have a three-part structure, that is the onset, nucleus and coda. Nucleus are usually vowels, but in some cases the nucleus could be filled by a syllabic consonant. In English, syllabic consonants are either nasal or liquid consonants. Syllabic consonants are written phonetically with a small mark underneath them as follows /ṃ, ṇ, ḷ/, this represents the omitted schwa pronounced within the consonant. The nasal consonants are /n/ as in number /nəmbər/, /m/ as on moon / mun/, and / ŋ/ as in ring / rɪŋ/.