Therefore, it provides people with the general basis on which they can develop psychological theories that are not readable and testable through controlled experiments and applied psychology. The whole idea of functionalism first arose in the United States back in the 19th century. During that time, it was used as an alternative to structuralism (Zhong, 2008). Behaviorism, on the other hand, is a psychological approach, which combines different elements of psychology, methodologies, and theory. Therefore, this means that behaviorism is mainly concerned with the observable and measurable aspects of human behaviors.
Both of these men utilize analysis as their focal theory of psychology and belief of an unconscious mind overpowering the conscious mind. At the time, the driving force of their popularity were their important and beneficial theories of understanding personalities. Though Jung’s ideals may have been molded by Freud and further critiqued it may be further perfected in the future due to the psychology arena of science will be
He thought that there had to be more to humans than simply rewards, punishments, and subconscious urges according to behaviorists and psychoanalysts. Maslow introduced humanistic psychology as an area to focus on the potential of people to become all that they can be. Other psychologists helped develop different elements of humanistic psychology, but Maslow is largely considered to be the father of the humanist movement in psychology. He steadfastly believed that people are motivated to reach certain needs. When one need is accomplished, a person seeks to fulfill the next one, and so on.
Cattell is one of the main proponents of trait theory, a model of personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality. Traits are enduring dimensions of personality characteristics along which people differ. Cattell and his colleagues first discovered the primary traits, which provide the most basic definition of individual personality differences. These more specific primary traits are more powerful in understanding and predicting the complexity of actual behavior. Next, these researchers factor-analyzed the primary traits themselves in order to investigate personality structure at a higher level.
“The brain was a part of the body, and once you focus on the body, you should be focused on behavior and seek to change it” (Bjork, 2015, p. 2). Early psychologist Burrhus Frederick Skinner set out to do just this, and created multiple impacting theories along the way that have influenced the psychology field. The theories of Burrhus Frederick Skinner have had several positive imperssions on the career field of psychology and have influenced the practices used today. The impacts discussed include operant conditioning, the Skinner Box, manipulated behavior, and the similarities between the minds of animals and humans. Burrhus Frederick Skinner was a destructured theorist in psychology during the twentieth century (Skinner’s restructured learning
1225) cites (Johnston, French, Bonetti, & Johnston, 2004; Ogden, 2003) stating that the TRA “is one of the most frequently used models of human behaviour employed in health psychology research”. Madden, Ellen & Ajzen’s (1992:pg. 8) paper on TPB vs TRA, used a method of testing for their two hypothesis, the first; how the inclusion of “perceived behavioural control” would “significantly enhance” the ability to predict intentions and target behaviour. Compared to the second hypothesis which was further enhancement of the first hypothesis “enhancement in the predictions of target behaviours” and how they “related” to the magnitude of PBC. Concluding in their study that the support that separate measurements or beliefs of a practitioner have, influence their attitude and desire to perform/partake in an activity.
Specifically, it is an empirical research that uses quantitative and qualitative data to discover things ‘about communication phenomena’ (Jones 2013, p. 2, pp. 9-10). In my opinion, scientific method is the most suitable technique to be used for communication research amongst the methods of knowing. Wimmer and Dominick (2014, pp. 10-13) point out six basic characteristics of scientific method, including ‘scientific research is public’, ‘science is objective’, ‘science is empirical’, ‘science is systematic and cumulative’, ‘science is predictive’ and ‘science is self-correcting’.
Anthropology is the holistic scientific study of human kind (Park. 2014 p.12). There are countless ways in which we can learn about humankind as a whole but in order to do so we first must recognize how anthropology and its four-subfields help us study species with a holistic approach. It would be difficult to fully comprehend our species and all it entails with a simple one subfield approach. Park (2014) said it himself, “Thus, affiliation with one of the traditional subfields of anthropology should be no more than a starting point to the scholarly investigation of the nature of our species.
Psychology can be defined as the scientific study of human behaviour and mental processes. It can also be defined as the study of human behaviour, thought processes and emotions. Psychology has contributed to the understanding of ourselves and our relationships with other people, if it is applied in an informed way. It is also the science of behaviour and mind, embracing all aspects of conscious and unconscious experience as well as thought. Psychology not only as helped the cognitive, developmental, health, industrial and inter personal relationship among people, it has also improved the society vastly and has taken account of the context of people’s lives.