Problem-Based Learning: Constructivist Approach

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PBL is significant in enhancing critical thinking, creative thinking and teamwork skills of the conventional teaching methods. Problem-based learning (PBL) is one of the constructivist approaches, in which cooperation among students is the key to the success of this learning method. This cooperation will create critical thinking skills in solving a problem so that a decision can be made properly and correctly.
According to Smith. S (1997), PBL is also one of the innovations and other new approaches to help overcome from the usage of traditional curriculum in most institutions of higher education. According to him via PBL, some learning objective can be realized such as being able to provide the knowledge that is easier to maintain in the students’
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Implementation of teaching methods through PBL requires students to think critically in order to solve a given problem. PBL is s research process, thus the students will learn concepts or content by working through the activities, in other words the content of the lessons is learned by themselves in a group. PBM is usually done in controlled groups and treated with regular hours rates compared to the regular lectures.
Siti Norbaizura (2006) made the conclusion that the PBL is needed to ensure that future graduates:
i. Can drive themselves and have lifelong learning skills ii. Have problem solving, analytical and critical thinking skills iii. Have the integration of knowledge and skills in various disciplines iv. Can work in teams and have the human skills (interpersonal)

According to Smith (1997) and Edward and Monika (1995) there are five processes to solve problems. These processes are:
i. Identify the
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Analyze Problem and Collecting Data
At this stage, students should collect data and make analysis of the information obtained. There are a variety of data collection techniques. For example, bone diagram (analysis: cause and effect), Pareto charts, pie charts, flow charts and others.
The process of analyzing this issue needed to develop thinking and consider all the possibilities. The objective of this stage is to find the cause of these problems occur. By Kirby et al, (2002), a problem that cannot be solved until the source of the problem is found. Some questions need to be asked whether what, where, when, who and how the problem occurred. The problem is analyzed using high-level thinking skills. Students need to think beyond the limits. iii. Making decisions
Students need to make a selection with the right solution and ensure that progress is made is the best solution. In addition, students must have strong reasons to support the completion of the acquisition. The selection of this solution is generated by using a variety of methods to ensure the quality of ideas obtained. According to Mohd Azhar Abdul Hamid (2003) stated that one method of finding a solution is brainstorming. De Janasz, et al (2002), these methods are inviting lots of ideas to solve the problem because the method is a technique where many people from one group to share ideas on a matter without criticizing. This method is suitable for the
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