Firstly through; being very attentive to the children, identifying their needs, while also noticing and understanding variances in their behaviour and responding accordingly. In correlation to this teachers should develop self-awareness to separate their own feelings from those of the children Lillard (2005). Secondly, observation is used to evaluate children‘s interests, for instance, the teacher would note whether or not the child is interested in an object, how he/she displays this interest and how long they are interested in it. As a result, teachers could also use observations to assess children‘s work in progress, though this must be done subtly as even a glance could disrupt the concentration of a child engaged on a
Piaget and Vygotsky, two of the major advocates for Constructvist theory, both explored factors that could help figure out how children understand learning at different stages in their lives. These theories give insight to the differences, yet also the links in learning, particularly in relation to how children gain their learning, and how their behavior may be affected. The learning theories presented; Behaviorism and Constructivism originated from two deep thinking schools of thought, which has lead to influence educators’ view in learning and teaching. Two of the major advocates of behaviorism were Skinner and Watson. They explored how children’s learning could be affected by changes in the environment that they learn in, and attempted to prove that children’s
Reigeluth (1999) stated that instructional material development theory offers explicit guidance on how to better help people learn and develop quality of instruction. According to the author, an instructional theories focus on how to structure material for promoting the education of human being particularly youth. Instructional theory is typically influenced by three general influences in educational thought: the behaviourist, the cognitive and the constructivist school of thought. The behaviourist assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environment stimuli. The learner begins to learn with no record and then, behaviour is form through positive or negative feelings and ideas.
Introduction Learning theory is the process of how is the information been engaged, practice and grow during learning. Learning is defined as the alteration in behavior, in other words, learning is approached as an outcome from the end of some process of the product. Educators who hold the cognitive theory accept as true that the definition is a change of behavior is too constricted. There are four learning theories that been proposed by the psychologist. Its all having own reason and strongly believed in their theory.
Moreover, according to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, personality develops through a series of stages, each of them characterized by a specific internal psychological development.And then, it shows to people the importance of learning psychology,especially the psychological development of children,as children are the start of human and psychology is the basic factor of one’s
4. Moral Development theory of Lawrence Kohlberg Lawrence Kohlberg was a famous psychologist and developed an important theory of moral developments. In this theory, the child is responsive to cultural rules and labels of good and bad, right or wrong. By studying the answers from children of different ages Kohlberg hoped to discover the ways in which moral reasoning changed as people grew older. Kohlberg’s stages of moral development have three main levels and six stages.
Psychology is the scientific study of the human mind and behavior. The central point of psychology is to understand how each person behaves on their own and in groups to try to predict behavior. By analyzing a person and identifying the personality they have, we can get closer to the predicting. Personality is a part of psychology that studies the different characteristics of people, as every person has a different way of thinking. Personalities are formed at an early age and can sometimes change due to our environments and social groups.
It understands how cognitive activities functions by understanding the influence of brain damage on human behavior. It upholds the tenets that brain lesions signify a deeper understanding of human behavior. It seeks information about cognitive functioning by looking at the behavior of brain damaged patients. The approach engages in this action because it believes that any brain damage will effect a change in human behavior and from this change, inferences can be made bout human cognitive activity. Thus, a detailed study extensively carried out on a brain damaged patient allows for extensive and innovative research in cognitive Psychology.
Introduction This assignment is in two parts. The first part of this assignment would attempt to use the theories of human development to explain the child behaviour observed during child observation at the preschool while the second part of this assignment would propose an intervention on a scenario at my practice placement. I would demonstrate my critical understanding of the theories and evaluate their relevance for evidence-informed and value-based practice. I would conclude by articulating my critical appreciation of the use of theory to inform professional social work practice based on my experience from the child observation and my placement experience. The notes taken from the child observations and a chosen case from my placement
Educational psychology (EP) is a branch of psychology which is apprehensive about the logical investigation of human learning. Many psychologists and philosophers came up with theories regarding EP such as; the cognitive development theory of Jean Piaget, the moral developmental theory by Kohlberg and Gilligan and at the same time special focus was given to different teaching methods through this branch of psychology. “Psychology is the science of behavior and cognitive processes” (Baron, 2013, p.5) Therefore EP consists of the study of an individual’s mental thoughts and actions in an educational environment. According to Bohlin, Durwin and Reese-Weber “The science of educational psychology involves formulating theories – sets of ideas that are used to explain a phenomenon and make predictions about behavior – and then conduct research to determine how well those theories explain the phenomenon” (2012, p.6). EP is the psychology of learning and educating, but then a dominant part of instructive clinicians invest their energy concentrating on approaches to portray and enhance learning and instructing.