In Utilitarianism the standard of morality is set on the basis of what is good for most and not just for one person. John Stuart Mill stated that: “The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of
These ideas of Machiavelli are shown in his text ‘The Prince’. His view on politics strongly influenced the ideas of English political philosopher Thomas Hobbes (Sullivan, 2004). In Hobbes’ book ‘Leviathan’ he further claims that politics is based upon self-interest; that is inevitable to avoid conflicts. Both Machiavelli and Hobbes thought that politics is about power and self-interest. These two prominent philosophers well explain what politics is and they may define the most appropriate definition of politics in the 21st century.
Political analysts attempt to provide an understanding of the workings of the modern state had necessitated the employment of certain philosophies, thoughts and theories in order to simplify and clarify their assumptions about the political system and how it works. Some of these analytical tools or methods include – the Systems theory, Group theory, Political Development theory, Power theory, Frustration Aggression theory and the Elites theory among others. Given these plethora of theories in the social sciences and bearing in mind that, no meaningful research can be undertaken in the absence of a sound theoretical base, this study adopts the Systems theory in order to explain the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the United
The other main idea of Smith is Moral sentiments. Smith puts forward a hypothesis of how we come to be good, how this profound quality capacities on both individual and societal levels, and what powers are inclined to degenerate our feeling of ethical quality. The invisible hand theory claim that if government doesn’t do anything, each individual will guide markets. The main theory of the Invisible Hand claims that if each consumer is allowed to choose freely what to buy so each producer is allowed to choose freely what to sell and how to produce
1.6 CDA and Political Discourse Analysis There are many approaches for the analysis of Political Discourse integrated with Critical Discourse Analysis. Wodak (1995) postulates a major influence in this study by summarizing the constitutive principles of CDA as follows: 1- Political commitment: the aim of CDA is to uncover power-abuse and inequality. CDA is being criticised for being political only because its political values are explicit. 2- Problem-oriented research: CDA studies the everyday use of language in different social environments such as organisational discourse, media discourse, etc. Each discourse is socially relevant to the situation, thus it is problem-oriented.
The development of thought led to the condition of the political science being a multidiscipline rooted in philosophy and theory. Despite the fact that conflicts arise, political philosophy with its revival continuously characterize an aspect of political science being value-laden. Political philosophy might have been disregarded for its conception of reflection as well as the values and even questioned for its relevance in the field. However, it is for a fact that in order for a discipline to grow, it must look back to its origin in order to find its identity and true essence. The study of politics characterized by changing theories and methods as well as the existence of political philosophy as its bedrock serves as a reminder that political science is a field not limited to the ideal conception rather, the field seeks to tackle the ideal and provide practical methods and knowledge to obtain the definition of the
Political science is the systematic study of the state, nation, government and its public policies. It deals with the theory and practices of politics and analyses the political systems, processes and behaviour. It is also concerned in addressing some of the core problems faced by the society at large such as in achieving world peace or at a more national level, how to achieve and sustain economic growth and stability. Why is political science important? Political science is important because political science is about people.
In this direction, the content of political propaganda is also very important in political election area. The more a political discourse is related to the general political culture of a society, the more the success percentage of that discourse will be. One important point in political-critical discourse analysis is that a successful political discourse is the one that moves toward the expected willingness and desires of a society. In Iran, for example, there are different cultural criteria that help a political discourse to be dominant in election campaigns, including: being management-oriented and program-oriented, having religious thoughts, fighting with immorality and corruption, bravery toward foreigners, willingness to stability and safeguarding the interests of the people, willingness to social and cultural freedoms, submitting effective strategies to have suitable interaction with others, simple-living and avoidance of luxury and so
Ethnic disagreements are either among various groups or with state authority. The study has its focus on ethnic conflict with state. Brass’s contribution is very important in this regard because he discussed in length the complexities of a political system, responsible for the rise of ethnic group as a challenger to state authority (Brass, 1991, p. 13-17).In his debate about politics of ethnicity and ethnic groups as a challenge to state authority, he develops his arguments with the support of instrumentalists, who believe that the promotion of socio-economic status is the main cause behind individual’s act of developing associations. They also believe that ethnicity is a mean to achieve some specific ends. Brass (1991) argues that political and economic conditions ascertain the salience of ethnicity.
Even the scholars from different discipline interpret management in different ways. Economists consider management as resources, Bureaucrats looks upon it as a system and the Sociologist considers managers are those who belong to higher class. The significance of mass media in contemporary society cannot be ignored especially in the field of politics, culture, social life and economics. Politics has always been topic for debate and mass media acts as a platform for it. Discussions and debates based on policies, facts, agenda of government, election poll and results etc are carried on in channels.