N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2017.) Only focusing on math, reading, and writing will not help students in their future lives, yes they are helpful things to have a knowledge of, but they are not the only things students need to have knowledge of in order to succeed.
Reading involves garnering knowledge, information and meaning from any literary text. Readers are encouraged to be active in constructing meaning while reading text. Thus, after reading has taken place, readers should have a clear understanding of what has been written and they will then be able to transfer information they need. However, many students still have challenges with comprehension; especially when they have to comprehend words, sentences or an entire text. If people do not understand what they read, it becomes a frustrating, pointless exercise in word calling.
The studies that fall in the exclusion criteria are not considered as accurate due to which they are rejected. The exclusion criterion for this study is as follows: Topic – Studies that did not consider bedside handover were not used because the main purpose of this research is to analyse the effectiveness of bedside handovers in clinical setting. Language – Articles or papers that are not published in English Language are rejected to be used in this research. Publication Status – Various studies are available on different search engines and databases but many of them are not accessible in full. This means that only abstract of many of the studies are published online due to which these studies are not considered as relevant to be selected.
Many argue, however, that many who read already contain empathy skills and never gain any empathy skills through reading. Another argument is that fiction books do not bring awareness of different events, for fiction books create stories that are far from reality in this world. Nevertheless, using logic and examples, the argument that literature does, in fact, improve our empathy and awareness, are stronger than those who oppose. With this in mind, reading fiction can potentially enhance social skills to students who are more empathetic and aware of the events of the people around them. Through reading literature for school or pleasure, teens have the chance to improve their awareness of the constant challenges that many people face around them; this improving skill can increase the desire to read more literature so that teens have an understanding of the world that they never had before.
Among the four language skills, reading comprehension has always been the main concern of Iranian ESP instructors (Farhadi, 2005; Sajadi & Oghabi, 2011; Tabatabaei, 2007). In a similar vein, Iranian university students regard reading comprehension as the most important skill (Sajadi & Oghabi, 2011). Williams (1984) classifies reading materials into three categories: (1) getting general information from a text, (2) getting specific information from a text, (3) for pleasure and for interest. Harmer (2009) believes that reading has a positive effect on people’s vocabulary knowledge, on their spelling and also on their writing. Scanning, skimming, reading for general understanding, reading to learn, reading to integrate information, reading to evaluate critically, reading for detailed comprehension are examples of reading skills.
Thus, the problem arose that English grammar teaching in South Africa is not up to standard. When one looks at the CAPS and the approaches included therein, specifically the communicative approach and the text based approach, we see that learners must know the basics of language and language should generally be dealt with in context by referring to “structures and features of an explanation” (DBE, 2011:11). Thus, the focus is on meaning and not on form. Ayliff (2012) postulates that these approaches should not be used to teach English grammar in First Additional classes in South Africa, because of the aforementioned focus that leaves no area for explicit grammar teaching. She also states that the classroom does not allow for enough positive input and practice in the target language (Ayliff, 2012: 53), as this is how the Department expects language improvement to take place (DBE, 2011:11).
Though, earlier research into reading assessment used the product approach, “product approaches to reading have been unfashionable in recent years as research efforts have concentrated on understanding the reading process, and as teachers of reading have endeavoured to improve the way in which their students approach text” (Alderson, 2005, p.5). The product approach has been criticized as it is difficult to address the variation in the product and to measure the product using valid and reliable measures (Alderson, 2005). Consequently, though not as an alternative but as a complementary approach, the process approach to reading assessment gained significance. However, the process approach to reading assessment is quite challenging since “the process is likely to be dynamic, variable, and different for the same reader on the same text at a different time or with a different purpose in reading” (Alderson, 2005, p.3). In spite of the limitations, the process approach offers noteworthy data about how the reader, the text and the context interact and impact the construction of meaning.
Espino (2014) underlines that reading comprehension is one of the pillars of the act of reading. Mingjun (2013) contends that reading comprehension involves extracting the relevant information from the text as efficiently as possible. It should be connected to the information from the written message with one’s own knowledge to arrive at an understanding. Suarez (2015) postulates that students who reach high school are expected to have developed their reading comprehension skills. They are asked to comprehend, analyze, synthesize and evaluate large amounts of information.
Vocabulary learning is part of the psychology(way of thinking) of second language learning process that has received a very little attention from applied linguistics (the study of language) and has been very mostly neglected by recent developments in research. This neglect is all the more arresting in that learners themselves easily confess that they experience large amounts of trouble with vocabulary. This research is an attempt to fix this neglect. Latest researches analyze that vocabulary teaching may be very hard because many teachers are not sure about best practice in teaching vocabulary and don’t know where to begin to form an instructional focus on word learning(Berne & Blochowicz,2008). Vocabulary learning is an extremely important