Teachers should incorporate a combination of direct instruction and the constructivist approach when teaching reading. This essay will discuss six elements of teaching students to read including oral language, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension and fluency, and ways in which teachers can deliver instruction using a balanced approach. A balanced approach to teaching reading involves explicit phonics instruction as well as world view. Traditionally students were introduced to reading with an emphasis on phonics. McBride-Chang (2004) recognised that this bottom-up approach resulted in students who are more likely to lose interest in reading due to the limited vocabulary and repetitiveness of texts they read (p.120).
The most common writing in school are essays or research papers. We need to do our essays with formal English. Always having good arguments, claims, and evidence. In order to compose a good essay it is important to have a good argument and doing many research to have valid and legitimate evidence. Throughout my education, I had to do many essays.
The sociocultural foundation of development is important because the reader and writer considers their daily social and cultural experience's, values and knowledge to contribute to their literacy skills in reading and writing. Researchers believe that learners draw attention to oral language, the aspects of language in serving daily needs, social phenomenon in language literacy, preschool experiences and home engagement language as related to accomplishments in school. The best practices in word recognition, and language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading-writing connections includes phonics awareness instruction, sight words, Alphabet learning instruction and sound letter instruction. According to Piasta , published programs of instruction in Alphabet learning has become one of the most primary objects for early literacy because it promotes familiar letters forms, sounds and names. Alphabet knowledge instruction correlates to strategic knowledge and the learners' ability to apply their phonological awareness.
Reading is obviously one of the most crucial skills and activities in any educational setting, especially in language classes. This importance is partially due to regarding reading not only as a great origin of information and an enjoyable activity, but also as a channel of reinforcing and boosting one’s knowledge of the language (Rivers, 1981). Reading comprehension skills, according to Sanders (2001), separate the "passive" and not skillful readers from the "active" ones. Skilled readers do not merely read; they have interactions with the text. Skilled readers, for instance, anticipate what is about to take place next in a story with the use of hints given in the text, devise questions about the main idea, message, or plot of the text,and monitor understanding of the sequence, context, or characters (Sanders, 2001).
Not only by exposing them to the language they will speak, read and write the English language correctly, students must learn and understand the meaning of words. Vocabulary words help any English language learner communicate effectively with any other person. According to Wilkins (1972), “Vocabulary is central to English language teaching because, without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas.” On the other hand, many teachers recognize the importance of teaching vocabulary and they must emphasize it daily in their lessons. Among many skills, vocabulary in context is one of the most commonly used. To aid vocabulary in context, the use of a Card-file among other strategies may enrich the student’s experience and understanding of what they speak, read, and
Thus, the ability in speaking skill is a crucial and important part of second language learning and teaching process. The mastery of speaking skill in the English language is a priority for many second language or foreign language students. Even though periods of focusing on language form and enhance vocabulary are important in English language learning, but developing the students’ ability to really communicate with English in the classroom are the main goal of an English language teaching. At the end of the study, the students should be able to communicate effectively in English for study, work, and leisure outside the classroom. Therefore, it is essential that English teachers pay great attention in teaching speaking to the students.
Students, who learn English, learn not only to comprehend audio or texts but also to produce pieces of writing to communicate and support ideas. Therefore, managing writing skills has become very important as part of the management of academic skills. Corrective feedback is considered one important tool in the writing process. For teachers providing feedback is a tough task and for students it is a constant concern as it is meant to help them improve in their productive skills. This literature considers types of feedback, efficacy measured
Accelerated reading offers a number of proven benefits to participants. It provides for authentic assessment, significantly contributes to improving reading scores and develops higher order thinking skills via the assessment, recognizing the achievement of the students. The program combines the reading of popular and rich literature with computer-based comprehension tests to provide inspiration for students to read books of higher quality and to read more in general. In addition, the accelerated reading software manages the records of the student to keep track of reading performance, which gives parents and teachers valuable information to evaluate motivation and reading comprehension
It involves reading a text repeatedly until the learner reads without making errors. Repeated reading is a credible strategy for reading instruction because it guarantees that readers grasp the content. Readers improve their reading speeds, develop sight word vocabulary and gain confidence in their reading abilities. In classroom instruction, the teacher selects a short passage and reads it out loud several times as the learners pay attention. The teacher takes time to explain the passage, providing a purpose for reading.
The Aural-Oral approach is very effective to be implemented in English Language Teaching in case to build communicative competence of student. It enhances listening and speaking also it increases new vocabulary for student. The aim of this essay is to give real imagine about how the Aural-Oral approach can be taught in or during English learning and give good improvement in both listening and speaking in order to reach student’s communicative competence. The first focus of Aural-Oral Approach is to teach English for student