Regeneration In Biology

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In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.[1] Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans.[2][3] Regeneration can either be complete[4] where the new tissue is the same as the lost tissue,[4] or incomplete[5] where after the necrotic tissue comes fibrosis.[5] At its most elementary level, regeneration is mediated by the molecular processes of gene regulation.[6][7] Regeneration in biology, however, mainly refers to the morphogenic processes that characterize the phenotypic plasticity of traits allowing multi-cellular organisms to repair and maintain the integrity…show more content…
The case of autotomy, for example, serves as a defensive function as the animal detaches a limb or tail to avoid capture. After the limb or tail has been autotomized, cells move into action and the tissues will regenerate.[12][13][14] Limited regeneration of limbs occurs in most fishes and salamanders, and tail regeneration takes place in larval frogs and toads (but not adults). The whole limb of a Salamander or a Triton will grow again and again after amputation. In reptiles, Chelonians, crocodiles and snakes…show more content…
Many annelids are capable of regeneration.[28] For example, Chaetopterus variopedatus and Branchiomma nigromaculata can regenerate both anterior and posterior body parts after latitudinal bisection.[29] The relationship between somatic and germline stem cell regeneration has been studied at the molecular level in the annelid Capitella teleta.[30] Leeches, members of the Annelid subclass Hirudinid, are incapable of segmental regeneration.[31] Furthermore, their close relatives, the branchiobdellids, are also incapable of segmental regeneration.[31][32] However, certain individuals, like the lumbriculids, can regenerate from only a few segments.[31] Segmental regeneration in these animals is epimorphic and occurs through blastema formation.[31] Segmental regeneration has been gained and lost during annelid evolution, as seen in oligochaetes, where head regeneration has been lost three separate

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