The Great Migration/Racism The Great Migration is a term used in U.S. history to denote the period in the 20th Century. The Great Migration was caused due to segregation laws, and to find an escape from racism and prejudice in the South. An opportunity to acquire jobs in the industrial cities. The Great Migration was a massive movement of millions of African Americans from the South to the North, expecting a better life. The Great Migration was the relocation of 6 million African Americans to the North.
The North and South, from 1861 to 1865, lost over six hundred thousand men in an armed and gruesome conflict over the issue of slavery. Despite the North winning militarily, the death rates for both sides were relatively equal. Following the South’s surrender at Appomattox, a time of Reconstruction ensued. Southern beliefs and behaviors, along with the Grant Administration’s growing indifference about freedman issues, influenced Reconstruction politics across the country. White Southerners scored a resounding victory in the Reconstruction Period by passing restriction laws against Negroes and intensified the Southern atmosphere beyond its original Pre-Civil War environment.
Within the civil war the population of the US grew from 3 million to thirty million. The blacks in the north were allowed to organized and protest. Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton founded the Pennsylvania society for abolition and slavery in 1831. Also another fact is William Lloyd garrison publishes the first edition of the liberation England. Civil Rights and the Civil War Amendments wanted us to know about Dred Scott v. Sanford in regards to the “white slave owners did what they wanted with the black slaves , because they had no rights”(443).
362) These government measures gifted African Americans the rights and benefits of citizenship. However, planters resented these advancements and wished to regain their previous social and political dominance. When the First Reconstruction Act was passed in 1867, political activity among African Americans surged, with “approximately 735,000 black and 635,000 white voters” enrolled in the ten unreconstructed states, and black electoral majorities in five states, as reported by Faragher. (Out of Many, p. 372) After African Americans were granted the right to vote in February 1869 with the passing of the Fifteenth Amendment, “Congress required the four remaining unreconstructed states to ratify both the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments before readmission,” as stated by Faragher. (Out of Many, p. 368) This requirement for readmission likely aggravated Democrats and planters, who feared the influx of Republican votes and objected to the African Americans’ freedom to
The Declaration of Independence (US 1776) showed that all Americans deserve equal opportunities in life when it proclaimed that “all men are created equal”; however, slavery continued to exist for over 80 years. Inequality continues to haunt African Americans in the present day in numerous aspects of life, as is apparent with police brutality and higher poverty rates than their white counterparts.
If Between the World and Me was viewed as a book saturated with hopelessness, Coates’s most famous essay regarding reparation “The Case against Reparations”, regarding incarceration “The Black Family in the Age of Mass Incarceration”, and regarding the president “Barack Obama, Ferguson, and the Evidence of Things Unsaid” would most likely deem him a cynic. Coates begins The Case for Reparations by stating, “Two hundred fifty years of slavery. Ninety years of Jim Crow. Sixty years of separate but equal. Thirty-five years of racist housing policy.
For the first time, African-American men across the country were legally permitted to vote. It was a significant step in the journey toward racial equality. The amendment was ratified in 1870, as the U.S. was struggling to recover from the Civil War. The war had destroyed its unity, ruined its economy, and killed well over one million people. The Fifteenth Amendment was the third of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Ideologies of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X The Civil Rights Movement 1950s and1960s consisted of the efforts made by Civil rights activist to end racial segregation and discrimination. Even though basic civil rights for African America where granted through the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments of the United States Constitution (Franklin, 535-536). However, Jim Crow laws and institutionalized racism continued to oppress African Americans decades later and considered them second class citizen. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X are probably the most prominent African American civil rights leaders of the 20th century. The two of them are icons of contemporary African-American culture and had a great influence on equality for not just African Americans but all races in America till this very day (Mintz, 30).
It was also the first to center the attention on equal rights for all blacks. However, this movement was unable to stay clear of racism in a country dominated by the white man. By the 1840s, black abolitionists were so fed up with white control that they began to hold their own black conventions. Nonetheless, black and white abolitionists did create political and legal campaigns against racial discrimination in the northern states of America. They had few triumphs, such as putting an end to school segregation in Massachusetts.
“The Constitution and Slavery” pointed this out by stating that “Yet at the time these words were written, more than 500,000 black Americans were slaves. Jefferson himself owned more than 100.” This shows that even though Jefferson insisted on the idea of “all men are created equal,” some can say that he is a hypocrite. “How could somebody make such a statement while they are doing the same devilish act?” must have gone through the minds of those questioning Jefferson’s sincerity. Indeed, he did commit those acts. According to Paul
The purpose of the Underground Railroad was to free slaves from the ownership of slave owners, and did just that. Over 100,000 thousand slaves were freed from slave owners, and they managed to live their own lives. While slaves escaping did bring about anti-black sentiment from the Southern States most clearly seen in the Fugitive Slave Act, it brought support for abolition because white people could see that all the slaves were just as human as the rest of them. This may not have changed their beliefs of inferiority, but it did change their beliefs that African Americans deserved such cruel treatment. After the awareness of the slaves’ capabilities and the living in communities with slaves, white people in the North that still supported slavery changed their stance after seeing first hand that black people, not just the few free blacks, were similar to everyone else.
Before the American Civil War happened close to four million African-Americans were slaves. At the turn of the century the Naturalization Act of 1970 allowed only white men to vote. After the Civil War the thirteenth (1865), fourteenth (1868) and fifteenth (1870) amendments were passed, allowing African-American males to vote and have citizenship, which also led to ending slavery. Even after the ending of slavery, there were still some white men who tried to keep white supremacy alive thereby dehumanizing and alienating African-Americans from the mainstream of people. Even after African-Americans were given all their rights, there were still problems with racial segregation.
In the South, people wanted to keep slavery because it was profitable to their economy and generated a 100% profit on all goods sold. In the North, blacks and whites were starting to work together. Blacks were still restricted and did not have the same rights as a white man but slavery was not accepted. Blacks could not go where ever they pleased, blacks could not apply for any job and blacks could not vote. The North began to build manufactures
Since the 18th Century Transatlantic Slave Trade, Africans Americans have been confined to a box full labor, mistreatment, and abuse. Countries all over the world slowly understood that having a skin color other than white does not mean that you are less valuable as a human being. However, in the United States of America the idea of African Americans being equal to whites was unreal. Leaders, such as Martin Luther King, Jr., a Baptist minister, the president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and key leader during the Civil Rights Movement after World War II, fought so blacks and whites could coexist and so the future could be brighter even if he was not in it. On MLK’s famous “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” MLK speaks with