Short Summary The aim of this experiment is to determine the rate and magnitude of compression of the soil. This is achieved by the displacement of water content in a given saturated soil sample when subjected to a load. By studying its rate and magnitude of compression, its preconsolidation pressure, compression index, recompression index and coefficient of consolidation can be calculated. Having the preconsolidation pressure helps determine the maximum vertical loading the soil can withstand before it suffers an irrecoverable change in volume. Subsequently, the compression index estimates the amount of consolidation the soil will experience and the recompression index determines how much the soil will consolidate again if load is removed
2. 0 DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY 2.1 Introduction 2.1.1 OBJECTIVE To determine the specific gravity of a given soil by Density Bottle or Pycnometer Method 2.1.2 Learning Outcome Explain the Concept of Specific Gravity and its Uses Describe Lab Method for Determining Specific Gravity of Soils Perform the Specific Gravity Test on a given Soil Sample Determine Specific Gravity of the Soil Produce a report of the exercise 2.1.3 NEED AND SCOPE A knowledge of specific gravity is often used together with soil moisture content and unit weight in the calculation of soil properties like void ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, soil identification, soil classification, etc. It is particularly important when compaction and consolidation properties
According to David (1998), soil is defined as the biologically active, porous medium that has developed in the uppermost layer of the Earth’s crust. Soil is one of the principal substrates of life on earth, serving as a reservoir of water
Engineers must accept whatever the result is when they try to solve or when they create a thing, even if the result is failure. Surely, because the result is not same as the demand, engineers will generate new creativity for their next project. For example, in African, cholera is a major health problem for the villages. Engineers make water filtration that friendly to use and cheap for the villagers that have function to halt the spread through
The process repeated again after adding suitable amount of water to the soil in an increasing order. The optimum moisture content was 14% 3.3 Soil Classification In the Indian Standard Classification System, classification of soil is done on the basis of their gradation characteristics and using Plasticity Index. Coarse grained soils that consist of more than 12% fines are classified as Silty Gravel or Silty sand if the fines are silty in character (i.e. it lies below the A-Line); They are classified as Clayey Gravel or Clayey sand if fines are clayey in character (i.e. the limits plot above the A-line on the Plasticity chart.
The main topic is how can engineers make a significant contribution to society ten, twenty or forty years into the future. Firstly, engineers can work together to create a new technology. This is an important thing because from years to years, people asked for a new technology that makes them better in their life. It is hard to create a new technology because technology needs specification, plan, testing and give benefit to
Mechanical Engineering is the core of all modern scientific development as it can help construct all types of machines, to reduce human efforts. I have always been fascinated with what mechanical engineering has helped accomplish, as engineers are able to build complex structures such as aircrafts and satellites. Physics and maths are two of the most important aspects of mechanical engineering and I personally enjoy pursuing these subjects and learning about atomic particles, kinetic motion, fluids as well as statics, dynamics and vectors in them. I am from India, which is a rapidly developing country where mechanical engineers can play a key role in developing my country as they can design various of machines and equipment that can be used in technological systems, buildings, vehicles etc. I have spent most of my life abroad India, and have seen various engineering projects.
Soil and its origin Soil is the unconsolidated mineral or organic material which forms the outer loose layer of earth surface that serves as a natural growth medium for land plants. Soil originates from disintegrated rock materials. These rocks could be igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic. The simultaneous and continuous weathering of rocks by physical and chemical elements results in formation of parent materials. The action of biosphere (Living components of soil) on the parent materials forms soil.
Material engineering is study different types of metals, ceramics, plastics, nanomaterials in order to create new material the meet electrical, and chemical requirements. The work of material engineers is important touches everyday life in ways a few people realize. First you have to know what materials are. Materials are what everyday objects are made from. There are more than 300,000 known materials (“Materials Science Engineering Majors Guide”).
If a clay soil is subjected to drying conditions, for example, when evaporation is removing water from the soil near land surface, a suction effect is exerted on the soil that causes water molecules that are not held tightly to clay particles to be drawn out into the large pores of the soil and to move upward to replace the evaporated water. This loss of water from the clay leads to shrinkage, the reversal of swelling process (Kehew, 1995). 2.3. Factors Affecting Swelling The factors influencing the shrink-swell potential of a soil can be considered in three different groups: • The soil characteristics that influence the basic nature of the internal force field (Table 2.1) • The environmental factors that influence the changes that may occur