It's mainly because each substance has a different stability. The stability is based on the unbalance between the protons and neutrons. Protons that are positively charged and the electrons that are no surprise negatively charged. The number of protons and electrons the atom has, and the number of electrons it has gained or lost, results in different levels of stability. A substance which is less stable, will have a shorter half-life than a substance which is more stable.
But in laboratory, the cleavage usually occurs in non-aqueous media in presence of a Lewis acid catalyst like Al2O3, Li+, Mg2+ etc. Additionally often elevated temperature and excess of nucleophiles are required. There are a few reports where use of a catalyst has not been necessary [3,4]. For example, aminolysis of epoxide by an -amino acid ester proceeds smoothly in refluxing trifluoroethanol . The same reactions fail in water.
1. For the demo experiment, the balanced chemical equation is as follows: (NH4)2Cr2O7(s)=Cr2O3(s)+N2(g)+4H2O(g). After the lightning of Ammonium dichromate, Chromium (III) oxide was formed while the Nitrogen and Water escaped into the atmosphere in a gaseous phase. Ammonium dichromate((NH4)2Cr2O7) gave rise to Chromium (III) oxide (Cr2O3), Nitrogen Gas(N2) and water (H2O) In terms of microscopic level, the ratio between reactants and products is as follows. One mole of Ammonium dichromate will give rise to one mole of 1 mole of Chromium (III) oxide and 1 mole of Nitrogen gas and 4 moles of Water is gaseous phase.
It is debatable which product is more prominent due to steric reasons and the capability of each product to conduct in hydrogen bonding. The ortho products allows for extra stabilization due to hydrogen bonding between the alcohol and nitro group adjacent to one another. The issue here is that these are both fairly large molecules therefore there may be a bit of steric hindrance making this a bit less
For this experiment, stereochemistry was observed by analyzing both the isomerization of dimethyl maleate and carvones. The dimethyl maleate is formed by two methyl ester groups that are connected by an alkene. They are in a cis-conformation meaning they are on the same side of the alkene, therefore the esters are close to one another. This conformation is strained and sterically hindered due to electrons repelling each other and are enantiomers of one another. With the use of radical chemistry, the cis conformation can be changed into a trans configuration where the esters are on opposite sides of one another.
Isotopes of the same element have the same amount of protons, but different amounts of neutrons. Different isotopes of the same element differ in atomic mass because of the change in number of neutrons, but still hold the same chemical properties. An ion is where an atom is missing or has extra electrons, which cause a net electric charge. Covalent bonding happens when two elements share electrons and become bonded together. The pairs of electrons are called “shared pairs” or “bonding pairs.” The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms, when they share electrons, is known as covalent bonding.
Using the combined gas law, the calculated volume of the gas at STP would be 0.0377 liters. If one wanted to find the volume of mole this gas at STP, then all that is required is to divide the 0.0377 liters at STP by the original number of moles of magnesium from the start of the experiment; this would yield the results at STP if one mole of magnesium was reacted, which is the same as one mole of hydrogen produced according to the chemical equation. In the end, the volume of mole of the hydrogen gas produced in this experiment would be equal to 23.6
Both mole of HCL(the 2 moles of HCL and the 1 mole of HCL) have less energy , and thus when the 3 moles of HCL reacts with Mg, there is even more energy between the Mg and the HCL particles, so hence the rate of the reaction will be faster. Sources of Error: What could have been done is more trials to make sure
This is simply a chart plotting the binding energy of an atom as a function of its atomic number (“Nuclear Binding”). The maximum in the graph around the atomic number of iron illustrates the transition from fission to fusion. Atoms with atomic numbers less than that of iron will require energy to be split apart as the binding energies of their constituent atoms are smaller, whereas atoms with atomic numbers greater than that of iron will produce energy when they split apart as the binding energies of their constituent atoms are larger (“Nuclear
This light then travels past the flame created by an atomizer. Where the atomizer essentially vaporizes an aqueous solution containing the metal ion(s), converting the input ionic solution from into atoms (IE: Na+Na). These atoms, are then shot with a specific ‘matching’ monochromatic light from the selected cathode lamp, whereby some the specific light is absorbed while passing by, This means that not all light will make it through the flame(IE less is detected then what is shot initially). After passing through the flame, the light is then filtered through a monochromator or prism, which works to select a specific wavelength of light, filtering all other unnecessary / unwanted wavelengths out. After this light is sufficiently filtered, the remaining ‘wanted’ wavelength of light is projected into a photomultiplier, which is an instrument that can collect, amplify and then finally measure the amount of light that was detected.
Polarity shared electrons get pull away difference in electrical charge at one end as opposed to the other end 2.3 The Ionic Bond 1. Ionic bonding when the electronegativity differences between 2 atoms were so extreme that the electrons were pulled off 1 atom only to latch on to the atom that was attracting them A: What is an Ion? 1. Ion is a changed atom or an atom with the number of electrons different from it number of protons 2. Ionic bonding is the chemical bonding in which 2 or more ions are linked by virtue of its opposite charge 3.
The purpose of this experiment was to see which solute, Splenda, granulated sugar, or salt, would dissolve the fastest in distilled water. Solutes can only dissolve in solvents when they are polar. A polar bond is a covalent bond that has two atoms where the electrons forming the bond are unequally distributed (About Education.com). This causes it have a dipole or separation of electrical charges moment making it polar. For example, in a water molecule the electrons are not shared equally because the oxygen has more of a charge than the hydrogen bonds making the hydrogens pull towards the oxygen.