Another distinction which has had a strong impact on the study of culture is the understanding of culture as practice or culture as a system of symbols and meanings. As Hall stresses, culture is about meaning and as such “permeates all of society.” Representations, practices, values and identities have cultural meanings that are discursively constructed and tap into previous cultural discourses to be meaningful. Critical intercultural communication casts light on ways in which meanings echo cultural knowledge and are therefore difficult to identify and question – even for researchers themselves, hence a strong emphasis placed on reflexivity. The importance of “cultural resonance” has also been pointed out by scholars examining media
the conventional mode of gaining and organizing knowledge which unites the diverse discourses and warrants their coherence within an underlying structure of implicit assumptions about the status of knowledge, to approach a literary text as a representation of or reaction to the power-structures in a given society. In fact, discourses can be employed as powers to govern and dominate as well as define and label people. What is embedded in a discourse is not just power but resistance to power as well. Foucault holds that people are the sites of discourses and constructed by
Based on Stuart Hall’s (2006) discussion of Foucault’s theory of discourse, a discourse is generally consisting of a group of statements that together offer a way of talking about a par-ticular knowledge on a certain topic. Many individuals can produce it together, in different institutional settings. The discourse thereby enables the construction of a topic in a specific way which at the same time limits other constructions of the same topic. A discourse is made up not only from one but a multiplicity of statements that all share the same style to talk about the same topic. However, it is not a closed off system, it draws statements from and into other discourses.
Language is understood as unfolding and evolving because of many interactions across the world. Many elements are being dialectically interconnected because of discourse. More recently, Critical Discourse analysis stresses the point of multi- disciplinary approach to discourse as a way of incorporating other disciplines such as anthropology, sociology, political science and many more as the apparatus of acquiring more
1.6.2: Interactional sociolinguistics: Gumperz and Goffman developed interactional sociolinguistics view of discourse from the perspective of sociology and anthropology- "as a social interaction in which the emergent construction of meaning is facilitated by the use of language". (Schiffin 134) Gumperz argue that social and cultural forces affect language and cognition and therefore "a general theory of communication which integrates what we know about grammar, culture and interactive conventions into a single overall frame work of concepts and analytical procedures" (Gumperz, Discourse Strategies) is needed for discourse analysis. Interactional sociolinguistics, the term and the perspective are grounded in work of John Gumperz. Interactional sociolinguistics as an approach to Discourse Analysis is concerned with how speakers signal and interpret meaning in social interaction. This approach helps the analysts to interpret what participants intend to convey in everyday communication.
This is due to the fact that a language is not merely a system of communication by which one expresses their thoughts and ideas but it also influences and, to some extent, shapes the way one perceives and thinks of the physical and emotional world within cognitive structures. Identity and Language Identity’s relation to language can be studied from different perspectives. Most of the studies conducted on language and identity are related to the field of SLA. However, researchers such as Labov have implemented the idea of identity in the findings of their sociolinguistic experiments. The two studies mentioned below both examine linguistic variation and indirectly demonstrate how this variation is associated with the identities that the speech communities under investigation would like to exhibit and posses for themselves.
Sociolinguistics is fundamentally concerned with the relationship between language and society (Hao & Chi, 2013; Wardhaugh & Fuller, 2014). It studies and explains why people speak differently in different social surroundings; it is interested in explaining the function of language and the way it is used in conveying meaning. Scrutinizing the way people use language in different surroundings provides a sum of information about how language functions (Hao & Chi, 2013). Although sociolinguistics might not be a topic of interest to many, the examining of language allows the understanding of social relations within a community, and the way people convey and build up features of their social identities through language. Speech conveys implicit clues about who we really are, our identities, such as, where we come from, or what have we experienced or gone through (Hao & Chi, 2013).
Qualitative analysis helps us identify important categories in the data, as well as patterns and relationship through a process of discovery. The social context of the subjects, thoughts and actions becomes essential for interpretation. It is an iterative and a reflexive process and jots down the meaning of the text rather than any empirical formulae. It is about analyzing the underlying meanings under the text through soft nuances and behavior. My topic needs Qualitative analysis as it opens a forum for discussion and interpretation.
Introduction: The English language is generally acknowledged as a global language, in view of its numerous functions and preference over several other languages around the globe. The tradition of English teaching has been drastically changed with the remarkable entry of technology. Technology provides so many options as making teaching interesting and also making teaching more productive in terms of improvements. Technology is one of the most significant drivers of both social and linguistic change. At present the role and status of English is that it is the language of social context, political, socio cultural, business, education, industries, media, library, communication across borders, and key subject in curriculum and language of imparting education.
English has its indomitable influence as the language of global communication and advancing technology and hence its growing need and value in education is inevitable, everywhere in the world. The progress of globalization and English language development are interrelated and they complement each other by working as pull factors for one another. Hence in this era of communication, such interlink between English and employability is getting strengthened day by day and it is quite obvious that English determines the employment opportunities and career prospects of a graduate, who enters the global job market. This paper overviews the strong bondage between this universal language and employment and the implication it has on the increased employability, especially in India. KEY WORDS: Influence of English, increased employability, tool for global competence, the growing need for English proficiency ENGLISH FOR EMPLOYABILITY English, which is be considered as an international language and the most dominant language in the world, plays an important role as a tool of communication locally and globally and unanimously gained the status of being recognized as the global medium for any field on this earth.