This is so because intersectionality theory has highlighted the need to consider other multiple axes of social categories such as age, gender, ability, class, and so on when doing feminist studies as these social categories can serve in producing the lived experiences of an individual. Moreover, intersectionality in feminist geography calls for a reengagement with questions of structural inequalities and power (Valentine 2007, 19). Considering that intersectionality is not primarily about identities, Crenshaw (1991) stresses that intersectionality is about how structures make certain identities, the consequence of the vehicle for vulnerability. Therefore, it is crucial for human feminist geographers to be able to see the context of the discrimination as in what kind of discrimination is at play, what are the policies, the institutional structures that play a role in contributing to the exclusion of some others and not
To explain the target of CDA is to denaturalize hidden ideological power in media discourse by studying linguistic strategies used to produce the ideology, how discursive practice construct the sociocultural structure and how sociocultural structure compose discursive practice. Discourse sets up social condition as long as it is created by people in the society. To analyze discourse, it must contain three dimensions, which are the analysis of text or language, discourse practice, and sociocultural practice. These dimensions help to understand the language used among the group of people in what they understand and why they use and create. Text can be both written language and spoken language such as poem and conversation.
This is called advocacy. They try to get to the real public, by using an intermediate public to get to the real one. Advocacy is a general tool of lobbying and is not used only by trade unions. What differentiates lobby from advocacy is mainly the language used. While lobbying addresses key officeholders from a certain area, advocacy addresses the people.
Introduction ‘Language gives shape and organisation to thought’ (Winch, Ross- Johnston, March, Ljungdahl & Holliday, 2010. Pg 467). Several fascinating aspects of language include it being a form of communication, which interprets information and passes messages from one person to another. For each individual language is different due to cultural backgrounds and beliefs, different communities and also the individuals’ capabilities. Speaking to a person verbally is not the only form of language, it can be writing, reading, listening and even body language.
The ever-evolving world contribute learners, educators, school administrators, scholars and everyone involved in education; to face a series of challenges during the 21st century. Certain factors such as immigration, the pursuit of job and education abroad, technology, and globalization have provoke bilingualism and biliteracy to become two of the most important challenges for the new millennium. Nowadays, there are more people on the world becoming bilingual than monolingual. Hence, bilingualism is worth studying than monolingualism. Besides, it enhances the understanding of human language faculty (Myers-Scotton, 2006).
INTRODUCTION As social being, human need to interact each other. Language is the principal means of human being to communicate with each other. It is used to express our reaction to certain situations, and to reveal our thoughts, ideas, emotions and feelings. Language also plays important roles to the development of human and technological civilization. Lyons (1981:3) writes, “A language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbol by means of which social group cooperates”.
There are four practical and principled reasons for this interest. First, the media provide an easily accessible source of language data for research and teaching purposes. Second, the media are important linguistic institutions. Their output makes up a large proportion of the language that people hear and read every day. Media usage reflects and shapes both language use and attitudes in a speech community.
In today’s digital world, text-centered communication method has shifted to images-oriented. Jewitt (2008) defines multimodality as meaning “made through the situated configurations across image, gesture, gaze, body posture, sound, writing, music, speech” (p. 246). This indicates that although language is usually considered as the central channel of communication, there are also other routes such as verbal and body language, images, and voice through which individuals’ can represent significant meanings (Kress & Jewitt, 2003; O’Halloran, 2011). In this respect, the ways individuals communicate or make meanings are dependent on the use of various modes that are not limited to language or print alone, but are extended to the use of multiple forms of representations such as visual, audio, spatial and gestural. Given these, today’s literacy practices extend from just reading written text, to reading multimodal texts with images, sounds, and other forms of modalities, and interacts within different social and cultural
Based on Stuart Hall’s (2006) discussion of Foucault’s theory of discourse, a discourse is generally consisting of a group of statements that together offer a way of talking about a par-ticular knowledge on a certain topic. Many individuals can produce it together, in different institutional settings. The discourse thereby enables the construction of a topic in a specific way which at the same time limits other constructions of the same topic. A discourse is made up not only from one but a multiplicity of statements that all share the same style to talk about the same topic. However, it is not a closed off system, it draws statements from and into other discourses.
However, in Fernand de Saussure’s opinion language is not only part of a social construct by it is controlled by social conventions. The aim of this paper is to compare and to contrast, Chomsky and Saussure’s ideologies. I will start by presenting Saussure notions regarding language and its nature. Thereafter I will contrast Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky theories. Overall, I hope to give evidence that supports Chomsky notions of language acquisition, showing that language cannot originate outside the human mind, because it is a property of the individual mind/brain.