Democracy and capitalism are the major ideologies in the U.S. They have a deep influence on the conduct of public budgeting. “In America, the meaning of democracy rested on the notions of partisan bargaining, minority and fundamental human rights, diffusion of power, and the influence of partisans through collective action over time” (p.54). The budget hearing, information disclosure and decentralized regulations are good examples illustrating the ideology of democracy. In addition, one of the most representative example of illustrating this ideology is the popularization of entrepreneurial budgeting.
Several scholars argued that privatization caters the increase in government’s revenues and strengthens the incentives in maximizing the profits which can lead to productive and allocative efficiency (Guriev and Megginson, 2006). On the contrary, those who were in favor of public ownership argued that there can be market failures. Shleifer (1998) stated that one strong support of this, which was used by
Immigration comes along with population and opportunities for countries and individuals at the same time. Therefore, it puts both positive and negative effects on individuals as well as on countries, in following paragraphs, so let’s discuss all the positives and negatives of immigration for both sides. Various positives a aspects are found for countries like revenue, cheap labour, skilled and motivated workforce, etc. One of the major advantages is likely the revenue from provided services. According to Kerr and Kerr (2011), Immigrants contribute to enhance the GDP growth rate known as “immigration surplus method “.
This cooperation helps to makes process of decision making more intensive and take into account the needs of citizens. Another important element of the development of a welfare state are interest groups or civil society organizations. They play a key role in the formation of a strong state by promoting the trust and solidarity among the members of this pressure groups. High level of trust is a main feature of the Social capital theory and the Nordic model of welfare state. Moreover, free-market economies are characterized by a high degree of income redistribution.
It proves that power is important to exercise the strategies of an organization to control the others. Third, the driving objectives of the organizations are wealth and power. The organizations use power in order to get the wealth they pursue. The wealth in this matter consists of income and capital; could be in the both physical and financial form, goods, services, research, technology, etc., which then will contribute to level up their existing power. So, the wealth and the power is related and determinant to each
Productivity is a variable that permits a nation to maintain high wages, a strong money, and handsome return to investment and with all of them a high level standard of living. Global economy is not a zero-sum game and various countries can expand their richness if they can start improving productivity [World Economic Forum (2005)]. Competitiveness defined as: A set of factors, institutions and policies which establish the level of productivity of a nation and therefore, manage the level of prosperity that can be assessing by an economy [World Economic Forum (2005)]. Productivity is a main driver of the rates of return on investment, which in turn reflects the level of aggregate growth rate of the economy. So, a more competitive economy is the one that is expected to grow more rapidly over the way to long term.
Introduction The developmental state theory includes the objective in advancing the economic growth by the political elites and it focuses on the state-led macroeconomic planning. The developmental state model is a part of the led-state models of development. The state- led macroeconomic planning in simpler terms mainly centralizes the involvement of the government in the economic planning, handling competition, managing the enterprises’ ownership and the financial planning for production (Ginsburg, 2001). This developmental state theory brings a huge impact on the administrative reform of a country and its government. The main target of an administrative reform is to produce improvement and advancement at a public sector, which is the society (Newman, 2002).
Abstract: Indians are transforming from rural India to digital India with so many initiatives by the Central government of our country. The initiatives like Make In India, Jan Dhan Yojana, Swatch Bharat, Demonitisation Of Currency are all contributing for the growth of Indian economy. These schemes are to improve the productivity of our country and also for proving a better standard of living for Indians. India is a strong nation with more than 50% of its people is in the working age. With this strength we can achieve success if we work hard with strict rules and regulations.
It plays a big role in the country’s employment and job generation. It also becomes a driving force behind a resilient national economy. SME can serve as potential suppliers of outsourced parts and services in a rising globalization trends and can contribute to economy both in terms of enterprises and workers. Given a bulk of Philippine manufacturing enterprises there is a need of improvement capabilities in economic and social aspects. Country can have many benefits particularly in increasing value added and employment as well as diffusion of technology and management, and access to world markets if it strengthens the linkages between multinational corporations.