New York: Vintage Books, 1982. Hyser, Raymond M. and Arndt, J. Chris. Voices of the American Past Volume 2. Thomson Learning, 2001. Kennedy, David M. and Bailey, Thomas A.
As mentioned by Kohli and Jaworski (1990), market-oriented companies attempt to acquire and evaluate market information in order to understand and develop superior value to customer needs. Burberry’s strong company performance shows there is a positive correlation between the relationship between market orientation and company performance which means that the market orientation improves company performance. ‘Holistic’ Marketing Holistic marketing attempts to develop and maintain multiple perspectives on the company’s commercial activities. Four components of holistic marketing are relationship mar¬keting, integrated marketing, internal marketing, and socially responsible marketing. Figure 1.2 provides a schematic overview of four components characterizing holistic marketing.
Wren, D. A.; Greenwood, R. G., (1998), Managementinnovators: The people and ideas that have shapedmodern business, P.218, New York, NY: OxfordUniversity Press. 6. S. Nakajima- Introduction to Total Productive maintenance- Productivity Press 1988 7. Saleh Khan Organizational Culture of MFIs Impacts & Influences European Microfinance October 2011, Luxembourg 8. Layla Badran, (2010).
First Altman Model (1968) According to Altman (1968) in The Journal of Finance, the systematic Altman Z-Score formula can be formulated as follows: Z = 1.2X1 + 1.4X2 + 3.3X3 + 0.6X4 + 1.0X5 Information: X1 = Net Working Capital / Total Assets X2 = Retained Earning / Total Assets X3 = Earning Before Interest and Tax / Total Assets X4 = Market Value of Equity / Book Value of Debt X5 = Sales / Total Assets According to Endri (2009) the financial ratios of Altman Z-Score can be summarized as follows: 1. Net Working capital / Total Assets This ratio shows how the company in generating working capital from the total total assets owned. Net working capital can be obtained by way of current assets minus current liabilities. 2. Retained earning /
SME’s need to collaborate to create economies of scale, mitigate risk, and leverage resources together (Hoffmann and Schlosser, 2011’ Morris, Kocak and Ozer 2007; Gnyawali and Park 2009). This study discussed the importance of strategic alliance as an effective mode of entry for SMEs to enter in the market. Innovation and entrepreneurship, resource sharing, and motivation are possible with effective strategic alliances. This study also finds that technology and innovation theft, conflict between the alliance partners, are the main threat to the strategic alliances. This study also developed an integrated approach for strategic alliances based on the key factors which helps the SMEs to develop strong alliance