Importance Of The Hydrological Cycle

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Hydrological cycle describes the continuous water circulation on, above or below the Earth surface which include lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. Without hydrological cycle exist in Earth, biogeochemical cycles could not exist, ecosystems could not function and life could not be maintained (Smith, 1992). Oceans play the main role in the hydrological cycle as they hold 97% of the total water in Earth. Natural processes on Earth rely on the forces produced by the hydrological cycle to support and provide enough water supply for plants, animals and human. Besides, the movements of nutrients, pathogens and sediments also occur in process of hydrological cycle. Solar energy is the driving force behind the cycle. The heating of…show more content…
Rivers are the primary movers of water over the globe, they tend to balance the evaporation deficit of the oceans. Wetzel (2003) states that precipitated water may either be intercepted or transpired by plants or may run off over the land as surface runoff. However, about 80% of the intercepted water and surface runoff are returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Besides, precipitated water may also infiltrate the ground. Infiltration is the process of movement of water through the boundary area in the soil. Transfer of water depends on the porosity and permeability of the soil. Infiltrated water may be stored temporarily as soil moisture prior to being evapotranspired. The average renewal time for storage is approximately 280 days (Wetzel, 2003).The storage capacity of the soil is made continually available by evaporation and plant transpiration. When the rate of rainfall or snow melt water influx exceeds the absorptive capacity of the soil, the excess water flows over the surface as overland flow. In general, the intensity of rain increase, the rate of infiltration increases. Some of the water percolate or seep down to an impervious layer of clay or rock to be stored as ground water. In ground water zone, percolation happened which is caused by gravity and capillary forces, the water find its way into streams or springs, and eventually rivers and

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