The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
Experiment 2 Report Scaffold (Substitution Reactions, Purification, and Identification) Purpose/Introduction 1. A Sn2 reaction was conducted; this involved benzyl bromide, sodium hydroxide, an unknown compound and ethanol through reflux technique, mel-temp recordings, recrystallization, and analysis of TLC plates. 2. There was one unknown compound in the reaction that was later discovered after a series of techniques described above. 3.
The actual yield is directly taken from the mass of the products in the experiment while the theoretical yield is determined by using stoichiometric calculations. To determine the theoretical yield, the reactants should be converted from grams to moles based on the coefficients in the chemical equation and the moles should be incorporated into the mass of the reactants. When calculated, this would give rise to the theoretical
13) Set the spectrometer to a wavelength of 530 nanometers. 14) Place the cuvettes (numbers 1-6) with the appropriate substance and record it’s reading in the data table. 15) After each cuvette was tested, place the distilled water sample (Cuvette zero) to reset the spectrometer and to ensure that the scale is calibrated and repeat for each cuvette test. Data/Results: Tube Number Concentration Of CoCL2 (Mg/ML) CoCL2 Stock (ML) Distilled Water (ML) Spectrometry Reading at
Each of the analyte will have its own Rf value under certain circumstances. The separation of the phospholipid classes can be improved by two-dimensional chromatography. This technique requires developing the TLC plate in a direction, then dried, and developed in a solvent mixture at a 90 ° the first development (Singh and Jiang,
BUN test In the Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) test, lab personnel check for the decrease in absorbance at 340 nM using a photo spectrometer when NADH is dissociated during the reaction between ammonia and alpha-ketoglutaric acid. As the concentration of the Urea in a specimen increases, the rate of decrease in absorbance gets higher 1.4. Creatinine test In the creatinine test, creatinine forms a yellow-orange complex with picrate in an alkaline solution. The colour intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of creatinine in the patient's specimen. The colour intensity is measured using the photo spectrometer at 505nm.
1 “substrate” and another “ enzyme.” Instead of using the distilled water, this time you are going to use different pH buffer in the enzyme test tube. In the substrate tube, add 7 mL of distilled water, 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, and 0.2 mL of guaiacol for a total volume of 7.5 mL. For the enzyme tube, instead of distilled water add the pH solution (3) and 1.5 mL of peroxidase which equals a total volume of 7.5 mL. Use the dH2O syringe for our pH solution. To clean the syringe, flush it by drawing 6 mL of distilled water.
Biuret test is adopted to quantify proteins in fluid by using a spectrophotometer. The biuret solution is a blue solution made up of sodium hydroxide and copper (II) sulfate which turns pink or violet in the presence of proteins, peptides and compounds containing 2 or more peptide linkage. A spectrophotometer measures the respective amounts of light consisting of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution. Spectrophotometer works when white light is separated into lights of different wavelengths by a prism which different colors of light passes through the sample. The transmitted light strikes a photoelectric tube, converting light energy to electric current that is measured by a galvanometer.
You must first test the pH level of the amylase and starch solution using pH test strips, so that the experiment may be fair m. Then measure 3cm3 of amylase solution using the measuring cylinder, the pour it into the test tubes labeled A1-A5 n. Do the same for the starch solution but pour into the test tubes labeled S1-S5 o. Put test tubes A1 and S1 into the beaker labeled “cold water” p. Put test tubes A2 and S2 into the beaker labeled “normal water” q. Put test tubes A3 and S3 into the beaker labeled “warm water” r. Put test tubes A4 and S4 into the beaker labeled “very warm water” s. Put test tubes A5 and S5 into the beaker labeled “hot water” t. Mix the amylase solution with the starch solution when both are at the same temperature in each beakers (pour the amylase solution into the starch solution) u. Quickly add 3 drops of iodine solution into all 5 mixed amylase and starch solutions, while starting the stopwatch for each (should be 5 separate
Introduction: Titration process is used in an acid-base experiment in order to determine the concentrations of solutions of acids and bases. Through the titration process, we are able to identify physical changes to the mixture such as the colour change to indicate the end point of the experiment. For example, the colour changes of phenolphthalein from colourless to pink and methyl orange from red to orange and subsequently yellow. Acids produce hydrogen ions and bases produce hydroxide ions. This causes the indicator to change colour due to the colour difference from the undissociate molecules.