They reveal the two very different mental states of the translators when translating, first, the translator isn’t even thinking; second, s/he performs pragmatic, cultural and linguistic analysis. It emphasizes on the factor of experience and background on the outcome of translation. Chapter 5 explores what people do with language, and the link between contexts and meanings. This discussion shows that who wrote the text, for what reason and for whom, are all factors that contribute to the split between the theoretical and practical of
As Duff (1994, 6) put it, "translation happens everywhere, all the time, so why not in the classroom?" The consequence of the violent reaction against the grammar-translation method in teaching languages between the teaching of translation as a language learning tool and as a professional activity as overemphasized to the point of preventing useful dialogue and exchange. This divide fetween the focus-on-language approach (translation as a tool) and the focus-on-communication approach (translation as an end in itself) becomes clear when comparing the rationale that underlines translation
Translation is the observable fact that has significant impact on routine life. It may include the translation of highly valuable international treaty or it may involve an advertising poster that provides some information to the customers or conveys some message to the visitors in a hotel or restaurant. (Hatim and Munday, 2005, p. 03). Problems in Translation The main problem faced by a translator is the lack of word by word matching between languages. This is fact that each and every language has its own manner of depicting incidents or reality and the translator have to take the unique aspects of both the source and target languages into account while translating.
One way to solve this problem is to find a new rhythm in local language. Secondly, it is necessary to know the object and subject in the activity of translation aesthetics. The subject of translation aesthetic are translator and reader. At the first step, translator is required to have a special capability of aesthetic. It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text.
This was the time when various institutions and scholarly associations began making efforts to develop Translations Studies as a scientific discipline that would make an attempt at explaining translation as a phenomenon. Since the 1950s, there have been many definitions of the term translation. The first Translation Studies scholars during the 60s and 70s subscribed to the theory of equivalence. Two of such scholars were Eugene Nida and Charles Taber who defined translating as "reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style" (12). Another scholar who supported this theory was John Catford who thought of translation as "the replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent material in another language" (20).
When it is looked at many text, now that it is known they should be comprehended together, there is a new field to study on about how this interaction between the texts woks. According to Even-Zohar, there are two important things that should be thought; a)why are these texts translated? (questioning the selection of the texts), b)how are these texts translated? (leading the subject to the translational
Translation Even though translation does not create a need or motivation of the learners to think about word meaning (Cameron, 2001), in some situations translation could be effective for teachers, such as when dealing with incidental vocabulary (Thornbury, 2002), checking students’ comprehension, and pointing out similarities or differences between first and second language, when these are likely to cause errors (Takač, 2008). There are always some words that need to be translated and this technique can save a lot of time. In recent years, applying many advanced technology, many teachers and scholars suggests some way to teach
The source culture is not expected to possess any knowledge of the target culture. Therefore, skopos theory suggests that translators have to be flexible in tackling with texts by not just merely ‘trans-coding’ or ‘transposing’ of the source text into the target language, as this cannot result in an appropriate ‘translatum’ (translated text). Merely copying makes the target text like a resemblance of the original text without any true meanings and the resultant text is not readable in the target culture. The role of the translator is to create compatibility with the target culture and to establish ‘intercultural communication’. Therefore the translation at the end may be diverge from the source text as the translator or the client may verbalize the source text in different ways according to their respective intentions.
According to Pienkos (2003, p. 388), a translator needs accuracy, diligence, good ability to handle the stress and also excellent memory to do the translation. However, many people think lightly about translation. They think that translation is just change words and sentences from one language into another language. Practically, a translator should have enough knowledge about the concept and the structure of the source language and the target language so they can change it in the equivalent meaning in the target language. Koller (1995, p. 196) said that a translation is the process of transposing the source language to the target language which has a relationship which is defined as equivalence relation.
Translation has been an inseparable element of any communication process, since it's the vehicle which transfers cultures, civilizations and sciences between different languages and diverse societies. It was conceived by different scholars from different perspectives, but they were unanimous on that translation is a matter of attitude and a translator should have a potential to take decisions, aiming to produce an idiomatic, natural text. Translator's decisions occur along a spectrum of methods to follow that runs from word-to-word translation (faithful translation) and ends on Communicative translation (beautiful translation), with six other methods in between. This spectrum of methods aroused a conflict in translators' minds: whether to