24) believes that a literal translation can be close to the original but not sound grammatically. His views are based on the fact that there is no a unified definition of literal translation among translation scholars and most of them define it vaguely by associating it with word-for-word translation and referring to it as lacking in grammaticality; in the sense that literal translations tends to produce ungrammatical texts (Catford, 1965, p. 25). On the other hand, there are other translation scholars who find literal translation grammatically sound, and acceptable. Hence, they classify literal translation as a translation strategy and advise translators to adapt it as their primary translation method. In other words, the translator should keep applying the literal translation strategy as far as it produces an appropriate text in the target language, but if it fails to satisfy that end, the translator can then resort to other translation strategies and techniques (Vinay and Darbelnet, 1958).
The fact of interpreting the texts by the translators by replacing them with their ideological knowledge including familiar conventions, words, phrases and existing statements strongly suggests that a translator is not just a person, as well a subject being constituted historically and socially. Translators’ ideological knowledge assists them during interpreting the texts and simultaneously reduces the range of interpretation. According to Calzada-Pérez (2003, p7), translators are people allowing their ideological knowledge controlled by ideological norms to manage their behavior. If you are a translator, you have to surrender the translator’s obedient role and ideological norms you are aware of. But it is a fact that the translators sometimes don’t become aware of ideological norms and factors dominating their translation process during the interpretation of the source text.
He identifies issues as to why there is a lack of coherency and understanding in the history of the field and provide answers to his opposing questions. Schmidt perceives there to be too much emphasis of the present times of the discipline and as a result, the fields history is becoming distorted by those who only seek out particular points in history to support their theory. He finally not only was able to address and effectively restate the events of the Great Debates, but makes light of the complications that quietly surround these debates. In all, Schmidt’s chapter raises the complex and hard to grasp issues of the field, but provides answers and different opinions in order to expand further thinking of the field of International
In covert translation, the translator role is to make transformations by using cultural filter. Consequently, the translation may be very distant from the original. Obviously, the original text and its covert translation need not to be equivalent at language \text levels and register but they have to be equivalent at textual function and genre. It is notable that covert and overt translation kinds include most of texts. Examples of overt translation kinds are political, simplified, literary, religious texts, etc.
1.2 Methods and targets As stated earlier there is an air of novelty that sorrounds the field of translation studies. Today's scholars focus on certain key concepts such as equivalence and adaptation in order to make it as clear as possible to themselves and everyone else what it is that translation aims to do. Virtually no major treaties that presumes to describe the nature of translation and what the building blovcks of this field are can ever hope to achieve its goals without resorting to defining these concepts. My paper will not focus on providing the definitions but in light of the fact that these are absolutely necessary towards properly discerning the main issues I would like to tackle, it is expected that the reader be as familiar as possible
Whenever a decision is made, it depends on the opinions that one take. So, opinions are important. Emoticons express the opinions very well but from the text, it becomes difficult to find out the sentiments and opinions of one. Sentiment analysis is the process of detecting one’s opinions regarding a person, product, text. This paper covers the challenges and basic work flow of sentiment analysis.
Translation is a complicated activity of human, we can not use such partial and outdated method to judge the translation, although this method plays an important role in translation development and standardization of the translation. At the time, the Skopos theory show up, through viewing translation as an action with purpose, attempts to start a new perspective on such aspects as the status of the source text and the target text, their relationship, translation concept, translator’s role, translation standards and
I agree with the statement “Language competence, in the sense of being bilingual, is not enough, unless it is also matched by a person’s being bicultural.” Translation is not only translating two different languages, but also translating two different cultures. Basically, primary stage of translation could be considered as converting the linguistic symbols. However, the most important thing of translation is to understand the context and translate the true meanings of the source text. Liu Miqing stated in his book that cultural differences are factors which translators should take into consideration while translating. Translators should try their best to translate the cultural information beyond the source text.
Overall, being skilled means more than just restating the dictionary definition verbatim. Which also an important idea to understand about critical thinking that it is not about restating the definition along with not citing it ad hominem. However, there are some problems with conceiving critical thinking as a skill because it can be viewed as generic. By generic the article means that those skills can be applied to other contexts regardless of background knowledge. Which is contradicting the definition of critical thinking and as said, “Background knowledge in the particular area is a precondition for critical thinking to take place”.
Yet, to minimize a translator 's ideology and bias translation criticism according to a theoretical framework has always been challenging for translation studies. Thus, critical discourse analysis (CDA) as a 'Three-dimensional ' framework (Fairclough, 1995) could be used for this end. As Bloor and Bloor (2007) state, sometimes the word 'critical ' may be misleading. While it is