This led to the “unforeseen” circumstance, in 1095, where Byzantine Empire’s Emperor, Alexius I, urged Pope Urban II, of the Catholic Kingdoms, for aid against the Seljuk Turks (Ellis 215-216). Note that the two societies had excommunicated each other long ago, which conveys why the plea of help was made 40 years after the problem of the Seljuk Turks began. However, Pope Urban II did make a speech on behalf of the Byzantine Empire, with the intended audience oh the Roman Catholics. Pope Urban II intended for the Roman Catholics to defend their “allies.” The Pope motivated the Roman Catholics to fight by constantly disparaging the Islamic Caliphates, which was inclusive of the Arabs, and claiming how the Muslims were worshippers of the Devil (Urban
Occurring predominantly in Europe and the Middle East, the Crusades began in 1095 and officially ended in 1291 (History.com staff, 2010). This being said, the causes can be traced back to 1081 when Alexius Comnenus gained the Byzantine throne, becoming Emperor Alexius I, after years of chaos and invasions by the Seljuk Turks (History.com staff, 2010). In due time Emperor Alexius would begin to set his sights on reclaiming the Holy Land from the Muslims. Seeing that this task would require more than the Byzantine’s men, he reached out to Pope Urban II of the Roman Catholic Church asking him for troops (History.com staff, 2010). The Pope made his decision public at the 1095 Council of Clermont in Southern France where he raised the proposal for all able Western Christians to raise arms to aid the Byzantines.
Like a Jihad, the Crusades were postulant expeditions in the name of God, to protect the Holy Land from the Arab Muslims. Later on, the Crusades became a substantial excuse for Christians to fight anyone who was supposedly a threat for their religion. The crusaders looted every city they passed, compiling anything that could be of economic interest to them. Adding to that, even
The Catholic Church and Latin America The Catholic Church was a great power ruling many civilizations in Europe during the period between 1492 and 1830. Therefore, the role of the Catholic Church was of utmost importance to the colonization and development of Latin America as it was a great force in Spain and Portugal. Despite the peaceful teachings of the Church, greed and a hunger for power led them to make decisions harming Latin America and Christianity, rather than thriving it. In this paper, I will show that the Catholic Church is significantly responsible for the colonization and development of Latin America through, the Christianizing mission, the Treaty of Tordesillas, and the Spanish Inquisition. Spanish claims to Latin America were based on the Christianizing mission.
The Roman Catholic Church fought to maintain its power while Europe came in to contact with other religions and Christians themselves began to question the role and dominance of the Vatican. Added to that, were discoveries in all fields including anatomy and astrology and even physical discoveries such as Columbus’s voyage to the New World. It is against this background that some of the greatest works of art were created by some great artists. This polymaths would have had opinions shaped by the discoveries and developments of the time, but would have depended on the Church to commission and pay for their work. The question is: To what extend the Church and new
It was the incursion of the West European Crusaders or the Christian warriors of the Cross. They had taken over the kingdom of Jerusalem and threatened to terrorize and pillage other Muslim lands. It was in such circumstances that Al Ghazali had to present a theory to tackle the problems of the divide between the Caliphate and the government, to ensure that the caliphate was the protector of religious authority in the Islamic world backed by armies provided by the Seljuk Sultans, who were equipped with armies to crush invaders to their
What were the Crusades? According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, 1 the Crusades were a series of holy wars called by popes with the promise of indulgences for those who fought in them and directed against external and internal enemies of Christendom for the recovery of Christian property or in defense of the Church or Christian people. This essay is going to outline the main events, and explain the reasons for, the first three crusades, by giving the timeline of main events that took place and telling as to why the Crusades happened. The First Crusade was initiated in November 1095 by Pope Urban II in the town of Clermont in France. It took place in Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, and Levant.
The weakened Persian Empire fell victim to an army of Muslims bent on global conquest. The Muslims quickly absorbed Persia into it’s rapidly expanding empire. Also, the Byzantine strongholds of Jerusalem, and Byzantine territory in Egypt and other parts of North Africa fell to the Muslims. The Muslim forces marched to the walls of Constantinople, but they were repelled by a Byzantine weapon known as “Greek fire,” an incendiary weapon that was developed in 672. They used it in naval battles.
The edict of Milan, which granted religious tolerance to Christianity, was signed by Emperor Constantine and emperor Licinius in Milan and policies towards Christians were changed. The major reason for the spread of Christianity was because it was of Emperor Constantine interest and since he was the emperor of the Roman Empire, which was the world 's largest empire, there was a massive expansion of Christianity.
Intense criticism of the Catholic Church, and in particular of the Pope, resulted in a swell of reformist thought. The religious aspects of the Reformation were accompanied by ambitious political leaders who sought to manipulate the Reformation as a means through which to expand their power and influence. Arguably, the Reformation was initiated by Martin Luther’s ninety-five theses on a church door in Wittenberg, Germany, in the year 1517. These theses were highly controversial in their nature due to the questioning of Roman Catholic doctrine as well as a number of practices that had been followed by the church for centuries. As such, the Martin Luther, the once humble Augustinian monk from Germany, became a key historical figure of the Reformation.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars fought from 1095 to 1487. The first of the crusades began in 1095 when the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, Alexios I, sent someone to request Pope Urban II to assist them with military support against the Turks. Pope Urban II quickly asked Catholic soldiers to join the first crusade. The first goal was to give the pilgrims access to areas in the Holy Land that Muslims were controlling. A more long-term goal would be to have the Eastern and Western parts of Christendom reunite.
In this manner, the Europeans formed the Crusaders against the Turks and Muslims to retake the places known as holly and spread Christianity and European culture all over the world because “the twin legacies of early medieval missionary activity before the year 1000 and of monastic reform in the eleventh and twelfth centuries provided the conditions for translating ideology into practice.” In this manner, the religious missions focused on influencing on other peoples’ faith to convert them into Christianity. Other controversial thing was about the understating of the diversity, and this understanding did not happen as it was supposed to be because an understanding of the diversity would help states to live longer. And understanding of the diversity of the multiculturalism is to respect to other ethnic and religious groups, so the idea of Europe was against this concept, too. Another controversial thing was the Islamic belief of Jihad. According to Douglas E. Streusand, Jihad means “holy war” as a usual usage of the word in the Islamic
Charlemagne was a military conqueror so he used this talent into the service of the church and for taking over most of western Europe and to compel his subject people into converting into Christianity. He sponsored many subtle military efforts. Charlemagne’s military way was first undertaken in the Aquitanian War, then the Lombard War than later on the Saxon War. Charles himself fought two pitches in this Saxon War. So a difference in the political backgrounds of Charlemagne and King Louis was that King Louis was more
The conflict causing the schism in 1054 was known as an investiture controversy. An investiture controversy describes a dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Empire over who held ultimate authority over the bishops in imperial lands. Popes of this time were corrupt and desired power. They started the Crusades to establish their power over the rightful rulers of Western Europe. The Crusades were armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim Rule.