Inca Trepanation

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During the fourteenth century, both the Inca Empire and Medieval Europe had important time periods. The Inca Empire was conquering more territory and making advances in their standard of living. Europe on the other hand, was troubled with the Black Plague, not understanding how to cure the epidemic, and not knowing the cause. This time period is called the Dark Ages because no important advancements were made. The Inca Empire was known for their wealth, gold plated buildings that lined the streets of Cuzco, and their villages that were surrounded by the rural hillside. While Europe did have countryside, it was often destroyed by war and most peasants lived in close quarters with animals.
The Medieval period was often called the Dark Ages because
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In the Inca Empire trepanation was performed quite frequently. Autopsies show that this procedure was performed on healthy victims for certain rituals. The Inca Empire had a high survival rate, almost 100%. In Europe it was sometimes done as a post-mortem burial rituals. During the 19th century, in the United States, ancient trepanation became a main point in the focus of archaeologists. Particularly, Dr. Paul Broca and Dr. Victor Horsley. Broca examined trepanned skulls, understood and explained them. Horsley had many theories about the origin of trepanation. However, both Doctors ' theories have not withstood as time has passed and more research has become known. Scientists compare Horsley 's observational method to Broca’s, who used medical reasons to connect seizure disorders to supernatural events with children. However, what disproved Broca 's theory was the lack of evidence that children were used for the operation more often. Horsley believed that the fact that the opening was above the motor cortex was a problem. Without this part of his theory it is more believable. Horsley was one of the first researchers who concluded that the "motor cortex" is smaller than he thought and his on research undermined his initial theory. In Peru, for every female skull found with trepanation holes there were about 4 male skulls with the burr holes. Half of the skulls found had facial damage and most were on the left side which suggests that they received these injuries in

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