Besides detainees being directly affected by overcrowded prison, it has an adverse effect on society, due to detainees being victim of recidivism. As agreed by United States Sentencing Commission (2016), “nearly half (49.3%) of such offenders were rearrested within eight years for either a new crime or for some other violation of the condition of their probation or release conditions”. The study additionally states that “almost one-third (31.7%) of the offenders were also reconvicted, and one-quarter (24.6%) of the offenders were reincarcerated over the same study period”. This to imply that society is surrounded by former law-breaker who never got a chance to change their sinful habits. Some of the victim of recidivism, according to United States Sentencing Commission
Life behind bars would be one of the lowest points in life for many Americans, but according to the US Bureau of Justice Statistics, one in one-hundred-and-ten adults are in a correctional facility. These people are putting themselves or others in harm’s way, and rightfully lose some civil rights due to their actions. I would say the majority of society would not want murderers or rapists roaming the streets, but what if someone was convicted of a non-violent marijuana offense? Are they just as much of a danger to society as the prior offenders mentioned? The “war on drugs” is made out to be one of the largest causes of mass incarcerations in the United States, but difficulties within legislation, the prison-industrial complex, and lack of
Institutional impacts people of poverty more than wealth. Meaning that a person’s level of income has an impact on how discriminated they are. Sadly African Americans are often on the lower side of the income scale due to racism that remains in our economic and educational system they are not offered the same chances for improvement as their white counterparts
Elijah Anderson’s commentary Code of the Streets describes the unwritten laws in urban neighborhoods. Anderson considers the code to be a response to the stigma of race, excessive drug use, lack of high paying jobs, and lack of hope for the future. Respect or “juice” is at the heart of the code and in this environment, an individual is defined by the respect he commands from others (Anderson 6). Anderson argues that the poor have a different system of values than the middle and upper classes. He describes families in the lower class as either “decent” or “street (Anderson 2).
The inequality is that minorities like African Americans are simply discriminated against. This documentary is pointing out social issues that has a lot of agitating moments for me. The film tackles police shootings, mandatory minimum sentences, The Birth of a Nation (film by Nate Parker), and lots other related topics. One example for me is, how can our country be the number one incarcerator in the world? The rich people get to go to rehabilitation but poor get to go to prison.
Another explanation of the violence that occurs in South Africa is blamed on the ANC government’s service delivery bad record, what Apartheid didn’t damage, the ANC did. South African xenophobia has also been explained by the level of social and economic inequality in the country. It has been noted that the greatest punishments of xenophobic violence have been carried out in borders of formal society, where foreign nationals compete with the poorest South Africans to make themselves a basic living. And then lastly, South Africa’s immigration policies are also blamed for exasperating the problem. There are millions of foreigners in South Africa, with majority being black foreigners and they have come to be seen as a serious threat to the impending economic health of the country.
Criticism of Merton’s Strain Theory One critique of the strain theory is how it overemphasis the position of the social class in regards to crime and deviance. As we know, the strain theory applies mainly to the American lower class as they struggle the most. Our lower class are faced with the lack of resources to help them reconcile their goals. However, by looking at the variation of deviant and criminal behavior, the strain theory does not adequately account for any type of crimes besides the normal street or neighborhood crimes. Additionally, crimes that are considered as being white collar, in which they are known in our middle and upper-classes.
Due to the judicial policies getting tougher on issues such as drug offenses and what they consider felonies, more and more people are going to prison. As of now, the United States has the highest rate of incarcerations. The inmates themselves are not only the only ones affected; 2.8 million children are left behind in the country after their parents are arrested (The Effects of Parental Incarceration on Children: Needs and Responsive Services). Children of incarcerated parents do not really get the attention they need, leaving them to face many problems alone. These children tend to develop mental illnesses, awkward social skills, and they function very different than a child with a normal home setting.
Although the exact reasons that parental imprisonment has these effects remain to be determined, a recent review concluded that the effects appear to be relatively strong, with multiple adverse outcomes (Murray & Farrington, 2008 p.186). In a community level problem, recall that about 700,000 prisoners are now being released back into their communities every year after serving their sentence (Eckholm, 2008). The flood of ex-inmates brings with it several problems of re-entry (Travis, 2005). Ex inmates arrive home with few prospects for employment or friendships with law abiding citizens, and many arrive home with personal problems such as a history of being sexually and or physically abused as children and a history of drug abuse and alcohol addiction beginning in
Disparities in the American Education System Introduction Male discrimination in the education sector has adverse effects which may inevitably affect the country’s economy. As reflected in results findings, the black males are given an unfair chance when it comes to school admission, grading and eventually getting jobs. Such discrimination is also reflected in the grading system. Slavin and Madden (2006) point out that that the number of black male graduates is lower than that of the white males. Also, the incarceration rates is high among the black males which could be attributed to psychological factors, insecurity, lack of jobs and even mistrust from the larger community.
The issue of prison overcrowding has been an increasing in America. There are about 2.2 million Americans in jail or prison. The number of people in prison have gotten so large that about one in every 100 adults are behind bars. The increase in inmate population in the United States is a concern to me because some of these people have committed non-violent crimes or have drug related crimes. These people should be placed in rehabilitation centers or be counseled about drug distributing.
In 2012, almost seven thousand inmates were serving life sentences for crimes they committed as juveniles (603). Sentencing and correctional facilities were not insusceptible to the confusion of the times, but also faced additional inconvenience. Sentencing research uncovered major discretion and something unlike anything they have ever seen before, resulting in negative punishments for minorities. The conditions in prisons led to fights and the death/injury of inmates and staff. Crime rates rising, social disobedience, and drug use increasing has alarmed many people (Mackenzie 2013 4).
However, is incarceration the answer to who society deems a menace, absolutely not. The overrepresentation of men and women of color, and people incarcerated for drug offenses are the effect of some changes that were made in the list forty years. Most of the people who are in prison are in prison for a reason, and that reason is because of sentencing policy. It is worth mentioning the jail and prison is sometimes the answer, however it should not be the answer for some low-level offenders. The recent laws and policy are the reasons why the prison and jail population have increased, and why people stay for longer.
It sad to see that more than half of the young men in our American cities are under the control of the criminal justice system. Where’s the justice when our system automatically demotes them to a permanent second-class status, and challenges their chances of happiness and freedom. When minorities from the justice system are released, they are harshly discriminated against. This discrimination does nothing but regenerates a cycle of imprisonment. With the world at their backs, the result usually ends up with repeated behaviors that places them back into the system.
Jobs applications, Financial Aid, Public Housing, and food stamps applications often ask for citizen’s criminal records, stigmatizing those who came out of the system, robbing them of opportunities. It’s very hard to find employment, convicts are all treated the same regardless of crime. In The New Jim Crow, the author talks about how young blacks are more likely to go to jail than college due to the system of incarceration. In fact, she cites a source that explains that in 2001, there were more blacks in the Illinois state prison, then there were in the state’s public universities, on drug charges alone. So forty years after the drug war was first declared, it still goes on, normalized by the commentary in media, and stereotypes assigned to those who serve time in correctional facilities.