Income Inequality In Education

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One of the most contentious issues of modern society relates to income inequality in different aspects, especially in education, which is widening day after day. Economic inequality is a great difference in the distribution of riches in a society. There are many ways how to measure a disparity but the Gini coefficient is the most popular (OECD social indicators, 2011). According to the World Bank, that index “measures the extent to which the distribution of income or consumption expenditure among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution”. Moreover, income inequality has increased sharply in the last 30-40years, where high-income and low-income families made a huge gap. For instance, due to the…show more content…
This shows a big difference in academic achievement of well off and middle-class including standard test scores, grades, college enrollment and completion. Economic growth started to decline dramatically in the 1970s and caused number of problems that were far less certain than 50 years ago (Sean Reardon, 2013). There are some examples of them: rising income inequality, decreasing social mobility, importance of education in the labor market, focusing on test scores as metric of educational success, parental investment on children developing and increasing income segregation (Sean Reardon, 2013). Nowadays success in education has more importance than economic success and it started to rise by parental income. Academic preparation takes a great role in educational achievement and growth in the gap in reading and math has a huge impact on the rate of college completion. (Greg Duncan and Richard J. Murnane). According to the Fraction of students completing college, 54 percent of one fourth of students from high-income families have finished four-year College, while the lowest income quartile showed only 9 percent, having 45 percent difference with affluent families in 1980 years. In contrast, in the mid-1970s these results were much lower. (Bailey and Dynarski.2011)Number of graduates depend on college costs and enrichment of parents, therefore gulf between rich and poor students is increasing dramatically, as…show more content…
Urbanization resulting from mobility enforce students from low-income families transfer from one school to another. Obviously, as schools selected by socioeconomic status, urban children struggled with problems to attend schools with high numbers of new and poor students. According to recent dates, schools with high number of freshman stand behind than those with no turnover from math courses. Furthermore, student mobility has negative effect and disruption on residential stable individuals (Raudenbush, Jean and Art, 2011). Poor teacher quality, too, refers to weakness in education. For example, high-income communities attract qualified teachers by paying high salaries. In that case, low- achieving students from low-income families make it difficult to attract and retain skilled teachers, which will lead to inequality in achievement among children. Additionally, teachers prefer high earnings, good resident with low violent crime (Boyd et al, .2011). As it seen, preparation for acquiring knowledge requires more money source. Based on data from Consumer Expenditure Surveys, in 2012, students bringing up in affluent families score higher than others do. Because a great financial resources may open variety of opportunities and provide with books, technical gadgets, private schooling and summer camps. In fact, gap in enrichment expenditures on children consisted only
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