Minorities are typically at a disadvantage when taking a standardized test, because they are already at a racial, cultural, and socioeconomic disadvantage prior to the test. The resulting disparity in test scores is known as the test score gap. It can occur between men and women, the elderly and the young, whites and Asians and so on and so forth. The most notable of these, however, is the gap between whites and blacks; it is known as the black-white test score gap. Christopher Jencks, editor of the book The Black-White Test Score Gap, said, “The average black student scores below 70 to 80 percent of the white students of the same age” (The Test Score Gap).
2017). The Economic Policy Institute found that while controlling for access to education, work experience, or location, Blacks make 27% less than Whites in 2015, a wage gap that has continuously grown in the past forty years (Wilson and Roger 2016). This systemic economic domination leads to unjust enrichment of Whites and unjust impoverishment of Blacks. These two concepts are another core tenet of systemic racism, in that through racial oppression of African Americans, there are material gains and losses. Whites place themselves in a position of unjust enrichment by obtaining property, money or other benefits that belong to Blacks.
Even with much more prosperity than before Obama went to speak out about how racial discrimination is still a problem we are unable to face in our society today. Women’s rights are still discriminated against and minorities are still faced with struggles that hinder them from fully participating in the economy. Obama went into reasoning how the past was filled with inequality that is affecting many people as the top ten percent rich takes more than a third of the country's riches and housing while the poor are not advancing at all. And comparing now to today how the gap between
This law was disadvantageous for black people because they were much more likely to have crack due to economic and political factors (Elsner p. 20). This meant that having only 5 grams of crack in one 's possession meant a minimum of five years jail time while having 500 grams of powder cocaine equaled the same amount of jail time (WIKIPEDIA). This law along with pre-existing racial prejudice made it that black people are incarcerated at a rate ten times higher than whites (5D). This was observed by a sociologist Katherine Beckett and her research team in
Besides white women being paid less than men, more culturally diverse people are being paid even less than them. A USA today article on the gap says “The numbers were even worse for women of color, with black women earning 68% of what was paid to white men and Hispanic women’s pay amounting to just 62% of their white male peers, according to the IWPR.” click here for link. That is crazy considering segregation has ended, at least so we thought. Not only culturally diverse women, but all women are being paid less than men. As of 2015 women are only making between $0.76 and $0.80 for every dollar men are making.
Siblings of different skin colors, not an uncommon phenomenon in a country like Brazil, have different levels of education, where darker siblings are more likely to drop out of school at earlier ages than their white brothers or sisters. All factors besides discriminatory treatment based on race (by teachers, parents, etc.) are strictly taken into account. The consistent findings on social mobility, the econometric analysis of income and the comparison of education levels in siblings of different skin color demonstrate persistent racial discrimination (Hanchard,1999). The numbers clearly tell a story of economic segregation as well: Not a single one of the companies listed on Brazil’s primary stock exchange has a Black CEO.
The media has struggled to achieve diversity. The graph above reflects the percentage of diversity in the top 100 films of 2014. Just by looking at the graph, one can see the significant difference between the percentage of white actors than the rest of the races. White actors makeup 73.1 percent of the actors leaving only 26.9 percent for acting roles for minorities showing that diversity has yet to be achieved. Even though society is supposedly evolving there is less than fifty percent of the acting roles that were going to minorities.
Student Loans Make Students Moan The United States has always been portrayed as the land of opportunity and prosperity. Yet in the United States, it is almost impossible in the 21st century to receive a reliable job, paying a reliable wage, without a degree of some magnitude which most people are unable to afford. Education is a very valuable resource some people squander away through the participation in obscure, regrettable college activities that leave them in massive amounts of college debt later on in life. This is one of the reasons why as of 2014, the United States was ranked the 6th most indebted nations in the world (World). The average total tuition of someone attending college as of 2016 is around 32,000 dollars a year.
Noting the limitations of the study, such as not being aware of where these people were surveyed, as well as the small sample size, the study produces interesting findings. The survey states that four out of every ten South Africans believe that apartheid was not wrong in its oppressive actions, as well as one third of white South Africans believing that poverty in South Africa in the present day is not a result of apartheid (Wadvalla, 2013). Seeing that this data was gathered twenty years apart the first democratic election in South Africa,
Along with transgenders, In 1996 only 4% of Fortune 500 companies had sexual orientation in their nondiscrimination policies, where now 92% of them do. “Controlled experiments have found consistent evidence of workplace discrimination as well. When researchers send two sets of matched resumes to major employers, and one indicates the applicant is gay, employers warmly receive “gay” resumes far less often than “straight” resumes. Seven out of eight of these studies confirmed the existence of antigay employment discrimination.”(Burns et al, 2017) With gays and transgenders experiencing large amounts of discrimination in the workplace, this poses an enormous threat on the economic security of these people. Another issue within this community would be the harassment they receive on the job site which causes some to leave their job.