Landowner started to give their land on credit to the former free man at the beginning of the year. The merchants lent seeds and equipment to the former free slaves. The landowner at the end of the year took his share of the crop but somehow they former slave always ended up short. It was the high price of the seed the farmer buys from the landowner and the high cost of the lending equipment made them always in debt. The black farmers were producing
Ed. Amy Hackney Blackwell and Elizabeth Manor.)(p223-225). Once the farmers with other skills did find work they suffered from very low wages for their huge families that some of them had. Like in the book Life During the Dust Bowl on person states that when she was younger she can remember eating string beans and corn almost all the time, also her father did find a job beyond farming but only paid him $24 a month which is to feed himself, her mother and the eight other children.(Yancey)(pg.27). Another way the farmers suffered from the extreme poverty was that the price for the wheat dropped from $1.60 to less than twenty-five cents a bushel.(Yancey)(pg.22).
When the New World was discover it depend on slavery to help finance the colonies and the industrial revolution. When the Slavery trade first started it open many jobs for the people in the colonies. They needed people to make the boats, the shackles, also the people that would go and get the slaves. In the south slavery played a big part in the economy, whether it was from working in the cotton plantations to slave trade. The plantation owners would pay the slaves a very low amount of money for the amount of work they did or not pay them at all, they would work for free and that way they would save a large amount of money.
Initially these slaves were not from Africa but indentured servants or white slaves who had voluntarily mortgaged themselves for a better life in America. At the beginning of the 1700’s there were 100,000 white slaves in the southern colonies working for landowners that came to dominate the agriculture and commerce. This system was misused and once free little or no land was available as promised. This in turn led to dissent, rebellion and a great deal of tension. When there were no longer any willing whites to enslave these landowners turned their eyes toward Africa.
Watson notes this in a letter from an Anglican missionary “Here’s no living without servants, there are none to be hir’d… and none of the black kind to be... [bought for] under £50 or 60...” (2014). While African slaves were a more expensive venture than indentured servants, their “contract” did not expire like the indentured. These slaves were classified as chattel, or property, and did not share in the limited freedom that indentured servants did. Although the African slaves costed more initially, they were typically owned for life, and even their children were born in the station of a slave (Tindal & Shi, 2013). Because these slaves were owned for life, the owners typically did not have to pay “freedom dues” which added to their cost benefits.
Slavery, the War on Black Family While slavery in America was an institution that was started over 400 years ago, the affects were so horrific that it is still felt today by modern day African Americans. Many families had to deal with the constant stress of being sold which made it difficult to have a normal family life. Slaves were sold to pay off debts, an owner dying and his slaves were sold in an estate sale, or when an owner’s children would leave the home to begin a life of their own, they would take slaves with them. Often times, children were not raised by their parents, other family members of someone designated to watch the children because the mother and father had to work long hours and the children were too young to join them.
For instance, one important social change that took place was the change of life for African Americans. In 1776, African Americans were enslaved workers with no rights who worked long and hard often on a plantation. They were harshly punished and in numerous cases they were sold and separated from their family. Many whites didn’t considered enslaved African Americans citizens but rather “possessions”. However, by 1870, African Americans gained citizenship and the right to vote.
Before the Civil War most black people living in America were slaves. Once the Civil War ended slavery was abolished and black people were given rights. However, people in the south thought otherwise. After the civil war, slavery returned in the form of convict leasing, blacks lost rights again, and were arrested for petty crimes. Convict leasing is something not many people know about, most likely because it’s a darker part of America’s past.
In the beginning of the colonies, a large amount of settlers came as indentured servants. The reason for this was that there were many English that wanted to come to the new land. It was cheaper and the labor paid very well, for most of them this was the only way they were able afford the trip. The colonies were in dire need for a labor service so they took advantage of their poverty. It wasn’t for at least around fifty years until Africans started showing up to the colonies.
In the beginning, the majority of farm hands were composed of indentured servants, people who paid for their passage to the New World by working for an employer for a few years. But slaves slowly began to take the place of indentured servants. It began with the fact that indentured servants were harder to control than slaves. Slaves were also was a better option because indentured servants would only work up to seven years, and after that they could become “independent.” So instead of using these servants, slaves started taking up most of the work force. They were permanent.
As America progressed during 1865 to 1932, African Americans have experienced a variety of American liberty. There were many hurdles African Americans had to overcome before they reached any type of freedom. The first challenge they had to overcome was that they were slaves and considered to be property, not a person. Once this was outlawed, they had to overcome the discrimination from the government and other Americans. They finally achieved some of the benefits of American freedom by being able to vote, work in industrial jobs, and express themselves through art.