Milton Gordon is stating in Assimilation in American: Theory and Reality that assimilation can happen in a linear fashion with the end goal is for the minority to become like the majority. In America that means becoming protestant and middle-class and adopting Anglo culture while forgetting their own ethnic culture. This was blatant with the forcing of Americanization onto minorities during World War I. Many non-white eastern and southern Europeans were allowed to become white by essentially forgetting the culture and adopting that of America. This lead to the melting pot theory where cultures were blended together in a strong cohesive society and that the process would beneficial would be good for all involved.
Throughout history, migrants had to meet a specific standard of living, particularly satisfying the means of society, in this case, assimilation. However, throughout time, assimilation developed numerous critiques which allowed integration to overtake this basis. Assimilation, according to the straight line classic assimilation theory, is the ongoing fact that individuals need to assimilate into the receiving country to a core culture of white Anglo Protestant, which will allow them for uncomplicated movement. Under these circumstances, assimilation is unidirectional. On the other hand, integration states that assimilation is not necessary for manageable movement in the receiving country.
In India the category of tribe has been talked about as a colonial construction. The general category of tribe was absent because there were no tribal writers or scholars to reflect on and write about the nature of tribes. The term tribe since 16th century has referred to groups or communities living under the primitive barbarous condition. Bora takes the point even further when he states that the pre colonial depiction of tribal people of India is dasyas, daityas , rakshasas and nishadas , when juxtaposed with mid nineteenth century western racial concepts advanced the aspect of bestiality associated with tribes. In India the question of tribe is closely linked with administrative and political consideration, there has been more concern with the identification of tribes than with their definition.
The Indian tribes are a unique phenomenon, It says something for the absorptive capacity of Hinduism that it allowed them a niche within Indian society, striking a fine balance between individuality and cohesion. The tribes were closer to nature and an eco-friendly way of life, within themselves they did not know distinctions and hierarchies. They were spirited and independent, hardy and self confident. They were the denizens of the other India, the groves and forest, in close touch with nature, and yet always a part and parcel of the Indian order. They had not been absorbed into the urban society, while the Hindus had been reconciled to foreign rule and service under foreign rulers, the tribes were not inured.
Assimilation can be described as the process whereby outsiders, immigrants, or subordinate groups become indistinguishable within the dominant host society, eventually conforming to the existing cultural norms of society. Many Muslims reject any call for assimilation. For them, assimilation is tantamount to a loss of cultural, religious, ethnic identity, and an expectation of conformity to the norms of the majority. But sometimes is not a conscious choice. Unluckily, assimilation has proven to be an unreal goal.
Right of tribal People over Natural Resources: A International and national Perspective Introduction Tribal community in India has been most vulnerable community in the in equal, domination and exploitation ridden society. They are on the breadline of their socio-economic and political rights. Even after centuries, the unchanged condition of Tribal communities is leading in India. The violation of fundamental human rights and the state brutality has been perpetrated on them, particularly on tribal women. Tribal communities have faced isolation and social discrimination like that of Dalits from the mainstream society.
Therefore, tribes have an important place in Indian society. Indian has the largest concentration of tribal population in Asia and it is the second largest in the world in terms of tribal population. Tribal people are considered to be the original inhabitants of sub continent having a very simple way of life. Tribes as a social formation may be identified in two ways, firstly as a stage in the history of evolution of human civilization and secondly, as a society organized on the basis of kinship ties which enables them to be a multifunctional
Here the most useful general condition is that of “level” (Wilson & Wilson 1945). If possible, tribal societies are small in size, are controlled in the spatial and of time range of their social, legal and political relations, and possess a principles, religion, and world view of corresponding dimensions. Normally, too, tribal languages are unwritten, and hence, the extent of communication, both in time and space is inevitably narrow. At the same time, tribal societies exhibit a significant economy of design and have a compactness and self-support lacking in modern society. This is achieved by the close, and sometimes unilateral, connections that exist between tribal institutions or principles of social organization, and by the concentration of a multiplicity of social roles in the same social persons or offices.
Indian tribal communities are distinguished by religion and culture from the caste groups. Many 19th and 20th century monographs on India habitually confused tribe with caste, although caste is a different kind of social category. The 1901 Census of India used 'animism ' as the criteria to distinguish between castes and tribes. Tribes were defined in opposition to caste, as lacking caste attributes. - hierarchy, purity and pollution, kinship-based, technologically primitive, economically homogenous, and politically segmentary groups, practicing animism, possessing distinctive languages and placed at the margins of the state control.
3. Indian Tribal Literature Tribal Literature is one of the components of Indian Literature. This literature is divided into oral and written forms. Tribal India was early represented in literature by the Anglo-Indian writers followed by the writers of English and other regional writers. Oral literature comprises of songs, fables, puzzles, etc.