Indian Literature in English denotes the works by writers in India who write in English language and whose native language could be one of the numerous languages of India. It is defined as literature written originally in English by the writers who are Indian by birth, ancestry, and nationality. Indian Literature in English is now being developed and gaining impetus as literature in true sense of the term. The English language came to India with arrival of the British. The British came to India with motive of trade.
Regional Settlement Frontline Donations to the American-English settlers coming from the front line (nation Sweden, England, Ireland, Skontlandia) could not be identified because after the languages they intersect they immediately become one entity so that their native language is lost and each is caused by common interests aiming at a common good. 8. Evolution of Dialect-In American English Dialect The development of American English dialects be determined by factors specific cultural and geographical history. Some say the English have always mengedapankan time (last word and now) this is the impact of cultural history, and the geographical point of view on the regions have different characters and creates character of the area, but they remain a single entity as the motto of the immigrants in America "Ubi Panis Ibi Patria" (from many, one). 9.
Beside this English language is also useful for the communication purpose among the people throughout the world. The beginning of English literature in India is traced to the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century ,by which time English education was more or less firmly established in the three major centers of British power in India-Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. In late 17th century only printing press was used in India but only for the publication of printing Bible or Government Decrees. Then came newspaper which was the first English Newspaper in India, published in 1779 named as Hickey’s Bengal
Considered as an international medium of communication, English is widely spoken around the world. Kachru (1985) classifies English-speaking countries into three concentric circles based on the history, role, and status of English of the countries. The three concentric circles consist of Inner Circle, Outer Circle, and Expanding Circle. The Inner Circle countries are countries where English is used as the first language. The Outer Circle countries are countries where English is used as the second language.
It is frequently known as Indo-Anglian literature. As a category this production comes under the broader realm of postcolonial literature the production from previously colonized countries such as India. The first book written by an Indian in English was by Sake Dean Mahomed in 1793, titled “The Travels of Dean Mahomed.” Its early history began with the works of R.K.Narayan, Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao who contributes to Indian fiction in the 1930’s. Soon after, new generations of authors were brought out and wrote exclusively in English. And today Indian literature in
The Indian novelists in English, by using various linguistic and stylistic devices, have succeeded in infusing the rhythm of Indian languages into English and in assigning the Indian sensibility. Their language items form Indian thought and imagery and acquire a distinctive identity and elasticity. In the words of Prof. Gokak, Indian English Literature represents the evolution of a distinct standard, the body of which is English but whose soul is Indian in color, thought and imagery. There are different opinions regarding this experimentation in the style. Meenakshi Mukherjee states that the style is not integral to the author’s point of view but something added to the material like ‘icing on the cake or embroidery on a sari’.
Its colonial origins now forgotten or irrelevant, its initial role in independent India, tailored to high education now felt to be insufficiently inclusive socially and linguistically, the current state of English stems from its overwhelming presence on the world stage and the reflection of this in the national arena. (NCERT 2006:1) Stating that ‘English does not stand alone’, the National Focus Group’s position paper argues that: (English) needs to find its place along with other Indian Languages In relation to other subjects, a language across the curriculum perspective is perhaps of particular relevance to primary education. Language is best acquired through different meaning-making contexts and hence all teaching in a sense is language teaching. This perspective also captures the centrality of language in abstract thought in secondary education. (NCERT 2006:4) English language education has to find its place in the holistic and broader plan of language education where it plays a complementary and supplementary role in the creation of multilinguals /
The Indian English Novel, moreover, has now been widely much-admired all over the world, as it has been successful in carving its own position not only in the world of commonwealth literature but also in the ‘World literature’. Though the origin of Indian literature in English as a whole is necessarily the English education and the introduction of British literature, the Indian English Novel emerged as a necessary product of its own story telling tradition and the tradition of English novel. So, it is considered that one of the most noteworthy gifts of English education to India is prose fiction for though India was probably a fountain head of story-telling, the novel as we know today was an importation from the
After the Norman invasion, English was not the first language of the ruling classes. For several countries, French and Latin were spoken in England as well as English which in its many regional forms was the language of everyday life and of the lower classes. In the fourteenth century, the official government documents were first written in English, a sense of a national
Hence, the English writer ‘George Orwell’ declared that language doesn’t merely reflect culture, it itself is culture. English is often described as a window to the outside world and as the language of the world civilization serving as the gateway to the twenty first century thought and culture. Universally popular by its richness, flexibility, elegance and dignity, it is the