This problem has led to the elite and middle classes sending their children to English private schools while the vast poor send their children to the government schools where the medium of teaching is Hindi and not English. Another problem is that universities and even government jobs require fluency in English, as mandated by the ruling elite. Therefore, a person’s socioeconomic status in Indian society is approximately in line with his or her fluency in English language. In other words: a new type of caste
The writers of pre-independence Indian English literature includes Henry Derozio, Toru Dutt, Sri Aurobindo, Rabindranath Tagore, Kaliprasad Ghosh, Sarojini Naidu, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, and Harindranath Chattopadhyaya etc., these writers contributed a lot in the evolution of Indian English traditions. And they have always been a huge source of inspiration for the writers of contemporary age. On commenting about the contribution of the writers of pre-independence age R. K. Singh in his Voices of the Present commented, “collective contribution to the evolution of Indian English tradition has been noteworthy, even if prone to canonization” (R. K. Singh. 2006. 7.).
As opening of universities and schools was very rapid in India the demand of its emerged along with it which enabled some of outcast society member to come forward to learn English. Now English was not confined to only few private schools and colleges but the standard of English always remained an area of concern for all. The government took the precautionary measures by appointing commissions to develop the standard of English in schools and colleges. The Secondary Education Commission highlighted the same in a similar tone when Commission reaffirmed the importance of English language for example, University Education Commission mentioned that learning of English must continue because it a language which is rich in literature- humanistic,
There was a great demand for dictionaries because English was the first language in the country, and the English was taught in the schools. Grammarians at that time got busy with something else. They were busy with the teaching and the teaching methods and there was conflicts between them about the best teaching methods. Grammarians couldn’t meet the demands of the public . That’s why the lexicographers took the role to start writing dictionaries.
A study of the Indian popular literature in English is a study of the expectations and trends of the masses which makes the study appropriate. The local and international events leave a trace in an average lifestyle of Indians which in turn will be reflected in his tastes. It is also psychoanalysis of the cultural standard of the society. English writers were present in India from the pre-independence epoch. V. S. Naipaul, Mulk Raj Anand, R. K. Narayan presented the Indian lifestyles to the world wide interest.
Abstract— India is a large polyglot country; different states have the different regional languages. English is a universal and Hindi is the National Language of Indians. It is not mandatory that each one understands English language and the speakers expect to convey their ideas and messages to their listeners .Machine translation is an area to increase the knowledgeable society of Indians without any language barrier. Machine Translation is a sub division of Natural Language Processing that focuses on translating text from one language to another. We propose a system design which uses English as the source language and Hindi language as the target.
?Now, knowing that British and American cultures are integrated in teaching English, the question is whether?intentionally teaching those cultures in ELT help student increase?their knowledge of the language, or it?only?reinforces cultural hegemony and alienate foreign?students from their own culture. Is teaching British/American culture a form a cultural imperialism? If it is so, how can teachers help preserve their student?s cultural identity while still teaching world cultures in ELT. Language, being a vehicle of culture, is
Ventriloquism and the Vernacular with Special Reference to Indian Writing in English Poonam Punia Research Scholor Dept.of English Ch. Devilal University, Sirsa(Haryana) E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract. Indian English Writers have a propensity to help and innovate upon the English language to communicate an innate sense regarding, “Indianness”. The ‘Indian English’ in slight ways switch over to conversational and the vernacular into the English. In other words, while writing in English, Indian English Writers articulate through a ventriloquist’s voice.
R K Narayan achieved his worldwide popularity with his famous novel The financial expert (1952) and Man eater of Malgudi (1961). Kamala Markenday and Khushwant Singh are those prominent and popular names in English history who are known for their clear cut secularism in novels and inborn passion for poetry as well. Now a day a number of writers have given their contribution to Modern English Literature. Their powerful literary expressions as fictional works have got prestigious place today. Though these works are fictional at point it connects readers’ day to day life and experiences and they find themselves in the fictional characters.