After fighting a losing battle against the English settlers, Native Americans found themselves cornered with the passage of the Indian Appropriations Act of 1851. Authorizing the creation of Indian areas in what is now Oklahoma, the native population was once again forced into even smaller fields of land called reservations. The U.S. government made several promises to provide the tribal members with food and supplies, but fell short in keeping them. In addition, there were strict limitations on the Native Americans ability to hunt, fish, and gather food. With all of these restrictions in place, the Americans were given the upper hand in terms of controlling the Indians.
The Dawes Allotment Act of 1887 authorized individual allotment of reservation lands to to be tribal citizens and granted citizenship to the allotte upon the termination of the trust status of the land. This created a checkerboard map where Native Americans were mixed with whites. Hence the word, "checkerboard" effect. The Act affected Natives by taking away millions of acres of their land. Furthermore, this Act is the reason why many Native land is separated into nations.
Congress passed the Indian Territory Naturalization Act in 1890, which permitted any member of an Indian tribe in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) to become a United States citizen by applying for this status in a federal court. This act allowed these Indians to maintain dual citizenship by keeping their tribal citizenship as well. During World War I Indians were still not considered citizens, therefore, not subject to the draft. Still, many volunteered to fight in the American Armed Forces.
READING QUESTIONS Day 128: Native Americans and the New Republic: Q. Why did the Americans want the natives to peacefully conform to their new American ways? A. Q. What did the Indians want to do when the Americans asked them to peacefully conform to their civilized ways? A. The Indians wanted to keep their Indian culture and traditions, while still civilizing themselves.
More indians tribes were destroyed during war with the whites, and since the Native Americans did not have as much technology, food, and medicine as the whites, they lost a lot of warriors. Many Native Americans would leave their tribes in search for food only to be confronted and ambushed by white soldiers. Some Native Americans chose to surrender rather than to be moved to a different location. After the Indian and American War, the General Allotment Act was passed, also known as The Dawes Act of 1887. The Dawes Act granted Native Americans land allotments.
The transformation of the West changed the frontier into a new and growing part of the United States. Over the period of twenty five years the land changed drastically. New technologies were created allowing the expansion of the United States to continue marching forward. The Native Americans were conquered and the railroads brought greater civilizations. The United States had already started creating a path leading into the West by laying down railroad tracks, consequently the Indians fought back in fear of losing their homelands and people.
Trail of Tears Native Americans experienced a dramatic change in the 1830s. Nearly 125,000 Native Americans who lived on inherited land from ancestors of Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Florida were all cast out by the end of the decade. The federal government forced the natives to leave because white settlers wanted an area to grow their cotton. Andrew Jackson (President of the U.S. during this time) signed into law, the Indian Removal Act, authorizing him to grant unsettled lands west of the Mississippi River in return for native lands within state borders.
Imagine being forced to leave your home, just for the reason of white settlers needing land to plant cotton. In 1814, Andrew Jackson from Tennessee commanded, the U.S. military forces that defeated a faction of the Cherokee nation. In their defeat, they lost 22 million acres of land. The Cherokees were given two years to migrate voluntarily, at the end of the two years the Cherokees would be removed by force. In 1838 only 2,000 had migrated and 16,000 remained on the land.
Native communities, historically, have struggled economically compared to those of other races nationwide. So, some tribes decided to search for alternative sources of income to boost their profile and diversify their investments. One of the ideas tribes had was starting gaming operations. This idea became reality in some tribal communities with the opening of bingo operations and casinos. Today, the true effects of gaming facilities on tribal land is debated, with the consensus leaning towards minimal benefits.
Melanie Mata 11th Grade U.S. History Thandi G. 3/13/17 https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-us-history/period-6/apush-american-west/a/indian-wars Topic: Native American Experiences Over Time Native Americans are an important part of the culture of the United States. While their people have inhabited the United States for thousands of years, today their numbers are dwindling. From Columbus's arrival to America up until modern day life, Native American tribes have been oppressed by white settlers.
The birth of the Bureau of Indian Affairs signaled the beginning of a series of extermination and assimilation policies directed towards the native tribal nations, leaving a devastating impact on the Native American legacy. In an official apology on behalf of the BIA given at its 175th anniversary, Kevin Gover stated that “from the very beginning, the Office of Indian Affairs was an instrument by which the United States enforced its ambition against the Indian nations.” The interest of the Indian people was never the goal of the agency despite its title, and the real purpose of its foundation had always been the removal of Indian problems by forced policies. John Collier, the Commissioner of Indian affairs appointed By FDR, aimed to improve