Adams (1965) pointed out that perceived inequity creates a tension that can motivate individuals to bring equity into balance, in four common ways: 1) altering effort: Individuals may change their level of input to the organization. For example, underpaid individuals may decrease their level of effort or increase their absenteeism. Overpaid individuals may correct the inequity by working harder or getting more education. 2) Altering outcomes: An underpaid person may request a salary increase, other forms of recognition or a bigger office. A union may try to improve wages and working conditions in order to be consistent with a comparable union whose members are paid higher (Samson and Daft, 2002).
To HIS Departments came the new tasks of receiving, reviewing, coordinating, and tracking responses and appeals to queries and denials of Recovery Audit Contractors (RACs). (Layman, 2011) What were the outcomes of job enrichment in the HIS Departments? An effective realignment balances three sets of factors. These factors include the "hard" factors of organizational structure and theory and the "soft" human factors of organizational behavior and motivation. Occasionally, these two sets of factors are contradictory – they move in opposing directions.
The demands are then consider as irrelevant or as an opportunity for personal growth, development and well- being. The response to appraisal can be determined by a judgment whether an action can be taken or not to improve the stress situation by various mechanisms. a stressor framework was developed which determine different stressor relationship with different outcomes. In this framework, challenge stressors refer to Job demands that present the potential for personal growth and rewards. Sometimes job demands that do not present the potential for personal growth and rewards and may actually affect growth or gains.
When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B
2. JOB SATISFACTION DEFINITION Job satisfaction can be defined as a response which cannot be seen but inferred to a situation. Job satisfaction shows our attitude towards the job and is associated with the outcomes and expectations. According to Locke, it is “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience”. Job satisfaction is an outcome of employee’s perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important.
Motivation is the force that pushes us to do things: It is a result of everyone needs being satisfied so that employees have the inspiration and ability to complete the respective task given. So will employees be motivated and perform to their capability by giving them good welfares, benefits and money? Money makes the world go round, it can be considered as an engine to push human’s limits but peers motivation and intrinsic desire to a good job are the real motivators in today’s workplace. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation There are two types of motivation, intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation being employees are interested on the work because it is personally interesting, rewarding, challenging.
Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two: Content and Process theories. Content Theories deal with what motivates and inspires individuals and is concerned with personal needs and goals. Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg and McCelland studied motivation from a “content” viewpoint. Process Theories deal with the process of motivation and is concerned with how it occurs. Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams and Locke studied motivation from a “process” viewpoint.
Management pursues a range of changes in the terms and conditions of employment and work practices. They achieve this through concession bargaining and unilateral management decisions. This is to effect cost reductions and to improve managerial prerogative. Industrial relations may become strained during recessionary periods. This is due to the fact of employees having to accept changes put in place by the management during this time.
It expresses the amount of agreement between one’s expectation of the job and the rewards that the job provides. Job Satisfaction is a part of life satisfaction. The nature of one’s environment of job is an important part of life as Job Satisfaction influences one’s general life satisfaction. Job Satisfaction, thus, is the result of various attitudes possessed by an employee. In a narrow sense, these attitudes are related to the job under condition with such specific factors such as wages.
The third category believes that many concepts and definitions of job satisfaction involve an evaluation process. Factors influencing job satisfaction of creating "job satisfaction" in a person is dependent on several factors together which lead to the achievement of the desired result. Lack of some of these factors may lead person to become dissatisfied with the job. Factors such as the amount of earnings the soul and the nature of work and its social status; prestige and reputation, enhance job safety, lack of role ambiguity, physical conditions, structure and organizational culture and communication with colleagues, according to the characteristics, performance evaluation, fit, flexible, innovative approach. Job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional attitude it is made up of attitude towards pay, promotion, relationship with co-workers, supervision, work conditions, benefits, contingent rewards, nature of work, communication, participation, performance evaluation system of the company etc.