Individual Motivation And Motivation

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As we try to analyze the working behaviour of individuals we understand that in a working environment we deal with various personalities and needs. Each person may categorize money in a different position as far as his priorities are concerned in his personal hierarchy of needs. Therefore, we can assume that motive constitutes a complex equation between employers and employees. Motivation is a process that provides direction to a person in order to achieve a goal that covers his needs through creating and maintaining a goal guided behaviour (Mukherjee, 2009, p.148). Nevertheless, behaviour is not only influenced by incentives but also from variables such as individual skills, knowledge, feelings and beliefs (Werner and DeSimone, 2009, p.55).…show more content…
There are two types of rewards, the extrinsic and the intrinsic which motivate, retain and secure the engagement of employees. Extrinsic rewards are tangible and determined at the organizational level including salary and extra benefits such as bonuses, health insurance and parental leave (Hurd et al, 2008, p.270). Intrinsic rewards are intangible and focus on feelings of achievement or personal satisfaction. For instance, career development, job security and recognition. These rewards satisfy psychological needs whilst extrinsic rewards satisfy basic needs (Hurd et al, 2008, p.270). Motivation theories divided into content and process theories. The first explain why people work or what activates them to work and their effort to satisfy their needs through work and the last refers to how and why people choose one action that could satisfy their needs (Boddy, 2008, p.487). In this paper, we will analyze the McClelland theory because it is considered the most powerful of content theories, the equity theory as it addresses with all dependent variables and finally the goal-setting theory because it is generally accepted that has the biggest impact on productivity (Robbins, 1998,…show more content…
This theory states that people are motivated by fair return in relation to their performance. (McKenna, 2012, p.112). When a person believes that is not treated fairly, feelings of inequity are created which can be reduced through six methods. Firstly, changes to inputs. A person can increase or reduce his inputs through absenteeism or quality of work. Secondly, changes to outputs. An individual can try to change outcomes such as working conditions and salary, leaving unchanged the inputs (Mullins, 2010, p.275-276). Thirdly, the perception of self is changed. For instance, the belief about how hard the person is working and the salary it receives. Moreover, the change in perception of others leads a person to see that someone else is working harder so deserves more outputs. Furthermore, the change in comparison with a new person that is more appropriate instead of the previous person which is not suitable anymore. Finally, leaving the organization or the department for another (McKenna, 2012, p.113). The goal-setting introduced by Locke and refers to the significance of people’s goals or purposes in defining the behaviour (Mullins, 2010, p.277). A person achieves his goals in order to satisfy his feelings and these goals make him behave and act in a way. This goal directed behavior and

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