The literature of America has undergone radical change since it’s beginnings with the puritan tradition. This rapid development has essentially been driven by a “desire” for a new literary “expression of American identity” and “artistic independence” from Europe, which was the center of world power and culture in the nineteenth century . In 1837, Emerson demanded that an end be put to America’s dependence on and “long apprenticeship to the learning of other lands” and encouraged his contemporaries to think with their own minds . In order to truly understand the spirit of a nation, one must look to its artists writers and philosopher, especially those of reputation and influence within the nation itself . The works of Walt Whitman and Louisa May Alcott were heavily influenced by the changing atmosphere of the nineteenth century with its new emphasis on self and society .
representations of the exterior world as a physical, historical, site of experience. Also, time is considered as well and became psychological not the historical time of realism. The conventions, strategies and techniques adopted by the modernist novelists were closely connected with the great transformations that Europe underwent at a philosophical, political, technological and artistic level, and they owed specifically a lot to the new ideas on the human mind that were spreading across Europe and America. William James and Sigmund Freud were among the chief creators of this modern psychology, and their writings, along with Woolf’s, show us their attempts to give a novel account of the workings of the mind. The phrase “stream of consciousness” to indicate the flow of inner experience was first used by William James in his book ‘Principles of Psychology’.
Love in the Time of Cholera is a profound book by Gabriel García Marquez. In it, Marquez discusses many things from sickness to sexual autonomy. One of the most prevalent motifs is the portrayal of the class hierarchy in turn-of-the-century Columbia. Classism is used to reveal an innate truth in how a country evolves and revives itself as it moves toward the future, leaving the past, and those who cling to it, behind. Through his characters Dr. Juvenal Urbino, Fermina Daza, and Leona Cassini, Marquez shows the natural succession of the old with the new and improved.
It became an emblem of the exotic, a ‘curiosity’, as the indigenous body becoming a representation of artistic colonisation by the European imperial gaze, a way to repress an alternative culture. Orientalism can clearly be seen through the enslavement of the ‘Painted Prince of Miangis’. Captured by William Dampier, he was put on display as an example of the ‘painted people’, for all of England to marvel, until he eventually died. This hierarchical attitude seemed to be reinforced by Darwin’s theory of evolution. Although perceived by the Victorians as strengthening Britain as a dynamic, industrialised modern world in progress; Raymond Williams stated, “What then happened in biology was a generalization of the sense of development (fully bringing out) from
I am delighted that the interactive oral on Anton Chekhov's Cherry Orchard furthered my understanding of certain cultural and political aspects of the novel. The following aspects that became clearer to me are; the importance of Memory for particular characters like Madame Ranevsky and Gayef, the way the transition of time is depicted in the play, and the portrayal of the conflict between capitalism and socialism. Cherry Orchard explores the after-effects of the Emancipation reform, which altered the social, political and cultural norms of the Russian society, thereby leading to the formation of a new Feudal Russia. Due to this economic alteration, the past holds utmost importance in this novel. For some characters like Ranevsky and Gayef – the past is something to which they are chained to.
The novel Perfume:The Story of a Murderer by Patrick Süskind follows the main character Jean Baptiste-Grenouille, an enigmous character with a hyper sense of smell which defines his ventures and his standing as “the most gifted and abominable personages in an era that knew no lack of gifted and abominable personages”(1). The novel portrays Grenouille as strange, unsettling and almost alien in his behavior and ways of thinking. Süskind uses figurative language to portray Grenouilles strange qualities. Grenouille is likened to a tick several times throughout the novel, because not only does it reflect his physical resilience, but this description also reveals how he is seen by others: inconspicuous, but once known, he is a burden and an unkillable parasite. Despite these ideas being used to only describe Grenouille, aspects of the text suggest that the message Süskind portrays is the idea that all of humanity is tainted by tick-like qualities.
Rajni Gupta Professor Prasanata Chakravarty M.A. (p) English Roll No. 2115020 The Enlightenment which began in the seventeenth century and flourished in the eighteenth is among the great political and spiritual movements in Europe. It has often been marked with emergence of science, abandonment of religion and birth of liberal politics. In this homogenous movement, a constant strain that resonates is the pertinent issue of reason and Religion in the Enlightenment.
How Romanticism effect on the poem and the poet and what is the secret collaboration of writing between Wordsworth and his sister, Dorothy? Literature was written in Europe between 1789 and the 1820s , together the Napoleonic Wars and the French Revolution gave birth to a self-consciously modern and revolutionary pan-European movement across all the arts in this era ,and called Romanticism in late nineteenth century .there are many important aspects of Romanticism :it is emphasis on the powers and terrors of the inner imaginative life ,it’s possible to follow a change in conceptions of the inner life which tended to give it primacy and prominence ,this period saw the rapid rise , expansion and growth of modes of writing associated with exploration of the self : lyric poetry , autobiography and the confessional essay, in the contemporary writing ,whether it was
To many people, resurrection is the act of rising from the dead. To others, however, resurrection is the idea that askew lives can transition into a newfound purpose and hope. Charles Dickens incorporates these meanings and concepts into his novel A Tale of Two Cities.The story follows two prominent European cities, London and Paris, throughout the French Revolution and the following Reign of Terror. Many characters in the novel undergo great mental and emotional changes as the plot progresses. They begin as very simplistic characters but grow into deep, complex people.
The Romantic Period has made a tremendous impact on literature.Not only has the romantic period shaped the way poetry is viewed but has caused an everlasting ripple social effect.As they say, the economy is nothing without the workers.The influential work of the Romantic poets such as William Blake challenges the cultural and political normalities of the 17th century. The movement encouraged expression and individuality.The Romantic Period and therefore the poet William Blake is a necessity in the 'The Best Poems of the English Language '. “Normality is the Great Neurosis of civilization.”(Robbins,1976). Like any change in history, it all starts with new views revolting against a traditional set of ideologies. With opposing views against