Introduction Haugen says “Language and dialect are ambiguous” because language from a synchronic perspective is seen as either a single linguistic norm or a group of related norms. While in its diachronic form it is defined as a common language amongst its users. According to (Wardhaugh, 2006) Dialect on the other hand is concluded to be the result of either the divergence or convergence of language in the sense that dialect is the outcome of a change in geographical area, social groups thus causing variation in language. A language becomes a language only amongst a group of members who are familiar or rather who speak the same language thus both language and society depend on one another for their existence. The aim of the this assignment
Different language communities have certain ways of talking that will set them apart from others and those differences are known as dialects. Dialects are not just accents but also grammar, vocabulary, syntax and common expressions used.One is able to identify and distinguish between different people, different ethnicities and races as people speak different languages. Each human belongs to a community which makes them speak a specific language and dialect that represent their community and differentiates them from others. Language connects people to their community as they are connected to people that speak the same
When the rational meaning of the words in two languages is basically the same, they form the corresponding words. But due to the universality and particularity of the culture, a language phenomenon can only be translated into the associative meaning but can not be translated into the rational meaning in the target language. Then it is equal to be said that in the target language there is a lexical gap. The phenomenon of lexical gaps exists widely in the translation practice. There are great similarities and differences among regional cultures.
On one hand, in Indonesia, which consist of various ethnicity, also has different manner in doing chit-chat. Specifically, every ethnicity has different manner in doing chit-chat. For instance, generally, Javanese is more often doing chit-chat than Sumatera people (Kusno, 2010). For this reason, Sundanese, which speaks softly, often become misunderstood from Batak which speaks loudly. Likewise Minang is different from Javanese, and so
Minimal pairs demonstrate that the sounds with differentiate them are disparate phonemes. When there is no methodical way to distinguish between the two environments, the two sounds are said to be acting solitarily. Belong to separate phonemes. It is evident that different languages have different minimal pairs, the tool of the minimal pairs also helps to illustrate differences in the phonemic inventories of language. In Thai, for instance, a minimal triplet: Thai: [bàa] ‘shoulder’ [pàa]
Cultural diversity is a broad topic which has been narrowed by short study. It has been found that the cultural diversity cannot be quantified and it has uniformity in respect to example as submitted above, however, different cultures are due to diversity of
9 Dec. 2014. This book shows that Language and culture are related. Languages borrow words from different culture. Language is used to convey customs and norms of one culture to the people. In this book, Sociologists and anthropologists work with languages by using the similarities of culture.
It is even more inspiring when learning different forms of speech and how each dialect or accent differs in a words meaning and/or pronunciation. Many words in linguistics might seem that they have the same meaning like for example trying to understand the difference between phonemes and allophones. Reading and practicing vocally will help you. Never the less: both terms phonology and phonetics are important in the linguistic field, and needs to be understood rather than
• Performance Evaluation: The performance of the system must be evaluated using previously unseen data. 6. System Refinement: The capabilities of the system will be improved and refined as more training data are acquired. CHALLENGES AND ADVANTAGES Challenges of speech recognition and translator for under-studies languages there are two main issues. • The oral language spoken by the target speaker resulting in difficult in accurate estimation of statistical model for speech recognition and translator • Lack of language knowledge realization in spelling in standard dictionaries that will be a great challenge.
But language activity is more than an art., and more than writing and reading. It includes the practical business of speaking and of understanding speech. To stress the primacy of the oral skills—as linguistics does – is not to claim for them a superior absolute value, but to recognize that they have their own special importance. Speech comes first in the processes of personal and cultural growth. Furthermore, whereas writing is awholly linguistic activity, speaking includes extra-linguistic elements that includes—voice, gesture, presence etc.