These small errors may be arised as a result of temperature. Because the accurate mesuring process took much time and during this time the temperature of water was decreasing. Among two methods the density bottle gives more accurate measurement of the volume, resulting in more accurate determination of density. One of disadvantages of hydrometer is that hydrometer has Operator dependent readings, therefore has limited accuracy. Morever, for measuring the density using hydrometer large sample volume is required.
The volume of water added into the tube at regular time intervals to maintain a constant depth is recorded from which the infiltration curve can be drawn. 2.0 Measurement of Evaporation The rate of evaporation is measured using evaporation pans. The general procedure involves filling an evaporation pan with water up to a defined mark. The water lost is estimated by determining the volume of water required to fill the pan up to the defined mark on a daily basis. An allowance has to be made for rainfall.
The DHRAM scores are subjective by assigning different impact scores based on the defined threshold absolute percentage change of mean and the coefficient of variation (CV). In this study, the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) method was used to objectively rank the overall degree of hydrologic alteration evaluated either by the IHA method or by the eco-statistical method. Details of this application will be discussed in a subsequent paper. In this study, the FCE method was used to calculate fuzzy vectors from the RVA of each IHA parameter, the indices of seasonal eco-surplus and eco-deficit, and from the seasonal indices showing only eco-surplus. A higher value of the fuzzy vector represents greater overall hydrological
Exp. 10 - The Chemistry of Natural Waters David Graves 11/10/15 CHEM 111 Section 104 TA: Lai Shi Group Members: Jasmine Graves, Brad Hensler, Peter Hoholick Introduction Experiment 10: The Chemistry of Natural Waters investigates the topic known as water hardness. Hardness is a chemical property of water that evaluates the concentration of dissolved divalent cations such as Ca and Mg, which happen to be the two ions that are tested for in the experiment. Hardness can be measured in multiple ways such as molarity (M) or parts per million (ppm). Since all natural waters contain ion concentrations of dissolved minerals, it is important to known the hardness value because hard water can cause scale formation in industrial
Hypothesis: My hypothesis is that the rate can be measured as ∆ρ/∆t=rate of reaction Additionally, I hypothesize that I can use variations of the original concentration of the solution of HCl with water to figure out how the original concentration changes rate of reaction. And of course, I hypothesize that my method will be successful in measuring the rate of reaction. Table of Values: Mass of HCl Mass of H2O and CaCl2 solution Volume of HCl Volume of H2O and CaCl2 solution Density of HCl Density of H2O and CaCl2 solution Final rate of reaction Concentration 1 (of HCl) Concentration 2 Concentration
The osmotic pressure coefficient must be determined for different solutions. It has been determined by various researchers and investigators to be less than unity and slightly increases with increasing solution concentration if the solute is not known or it is complex, we have to use mass concentration instead of molar concentration. For convenience: this model assumed to be at a constant temperature and is incorporated with the other constant Y which simplifies osmotic pressure to solute concentration coefficient. The value of Y was assumed t-o be constant over the operating range of the solute concentration. In corporation of osmotic pressure equation into the expression for the solute flux Eq.