Most of research has focused on children learning English as a second language who are exposed to the target language learned outside the classroom. As Ausubel and Terrell point out, we should exploit on adults’ capacity to comprehend underlying patterns, and thereby hasten the learning process. Because the inductive approach has been associated with audio-lingual (repeating) habit formation theories of the sixties, it has often been disregarded in deliberations centering on cognitive learning and explicit rule knowledge. The recently study directs that an inductive approach is, indeed, possible in a cognitive frameworks (the five senses), and that it can be as effective as deductive approaches for difficult grammatical structure regardless of language ability. This study does not put forward that teachers use only an inductive approach in the classroom.
This is attributed to boys’ attitude towards learning a foreign language. For boys, a foreign language subject is traditionally for women (Clark, 1995); thus, creating conflict between performed masculinities and language practice (Carr & Pauwels, 2006). Foreign or second language acquisition is also known to depend on the teaching approach of the educator. Some educational experts suggest that a natural approach is the most effective way of teaching. As opposed to rote learning, where students are asked to memorize words and focus on structures and rules, the natural approach is a process of learning that focuses more on language comprehension and terminology usage so that they can be used in communication (Terrel & Krashen, 1983).
This approach, which is applied in many communicatively-driven teaching practices worldwide and one example of which is the Natural Approach, seeks to engage learners in meaningful interaction through communicative or problem-solving activities in classroom (Richards & Rodgers, 2001; Kumaravadivelu, 2006). As these scolars comment, Terrell was the researcher who bore some experiences on L2 pedagogy in terms of learning-centeredness and his later cooperation with Krashen contributed to the construction of the theoretical rationale for this
Inductive approach starts with the observations and theories are formulated towards the end of the research and as a result of observations (Goddard and Mellville, 2004). Inductive research involves the search of pattern from observation and the development of explanations- theories- for those patterns through series of hypotheses” (Bernad, 2011: 7). In other words, no theories would apply in inductive studies at the beginning of the research and the researcher is free in terms of altering the direction for the study after the research process had commenced. 126.96.36.199. Advantages of Inductive research Approach • Meaningful, memorable and lesson students discover themselves.
Berlitz, still is a well-known method of language teaching all over the world. The Direct method was developed throughout decades by many scholars and other methods such as Oral method of language teaching. Also in other hand the Direct method has influenced many language teaching methods. Even though Berlitz introduce language as an oral phenomenon, the Direct method see the importance of developing the pupil’s power of analysis and synthesis. It keeps the priority on eye-work and development of book based knowledge.
The children can begin learning to speak a simple sentence. The sentences are more difficult to learn about the concept of the natural approach theory. It has been noticed that the natural principles that aim to help reducing tensions in the class and to help building confidence of the students in learning the language. Therefore, the students can learn the language better naturally without stress on learning. Moreover, the teaching concept of natural approach is that the language instructors will advice the students to understand the factors or elements of language learning process.
There are two types of research approaches, which are inductive and deductive, the selection of which is reliant on the context and nature of the study. The two of the research approaches are discussed below: 3.1.1. Inductive Approach Inductive is the research approach that makes use of the studies that moves from the specific perspectives to the general perspectives due to which it is also known as bottom-up method. The aim of this method is to develop new theory about the subject with the support of considering the content that is provided in precedent studies. The inductive approach considers only precedent studies for gathering information on the research.
The Direct Method suggests that there should be lots of verbal communication, no translation, random and spontaneous use of the target language and there should be little time given to grammar and syntactic structures (Lestari, P. Rahmi, A. 2011) The Natural/Communicative Approach The beginning of 1960s saw yet another method which was originally the brain child of Tray Terrall and Stephen Krashen. This approach focused on three main areas; aural comprehension, early speech comprehension and speech activities. Students demonstrate comprehension in the form of speech, this is normally after the initial silent period. To enable the student to produce the target language it is of paramount importance that the Affective filter is low (Bull, W 1999) Language-body conversations ‘Total Physical Response (TPR) The foundation for language body conversations are based on a physical response or action upon the student.
Two research approaches are there which includes inductive and deductive that can be used the researcher for collecting data and analysing it. The selection of the approach is dependent on the nature of the study that is qualitative and quantitative (Kumar, 2010). Deductive Approach Deductive approach is also known as top down approach that emphasise on the shifting the general perspective to the specific one. The focus of this approach is to make the researcher able to relate theory regarding topic with the aim of the study. For this purpose, the researcher focuses on making use of development of hypothesis.
In deductive approach, a researcher might start with thinking of theory about the topic of research. In other words, it is started with a social theory that is later tested to check compatibility with data. Moreover, that theory is narrowed down into more specific hypothesis for testing (Carter, 2008). Inductive Approach However, inductive approach works the other way around as it moves from specific observations to broader theories and generalization. It is initiative with collection of relevant data as per the research topic along with finding patterns in the data through analysis and then develops a theory.