Schaffer, at Case Western University, writes in “Migration Philology and South Asian Archeology” that there is an indigenous development of civilization in India going back at least to 6000 B.C. He proposes that the Rigvedic civilization initially crops up in the surrounding of the Sarswati River described in the RigVedic text. The river dries up due to environmental changes and this has forced the Rig-Vedic people to make their new abode in the surrounding of the Indus River. He mentions that the movement of populations away from the Sarswati to the Ganges after the Saraswati dries up in about 1900 BC is reflected in the changes from the Sarswati- based literature of the Rig Veda to the Ganges based literature of Itihas and Puranic text. He also states that the AIT reflects a colonial and Euro-Centric perspective that is quit out of date.
The early republic had frequent wars and changes in policies which eventually led to a collapse of central authority and economic contraction. In the republic of China, after the fall of the Qing dynasty, new industrial developments resulted in an increase in demand for Chinese goods. This demand led to an increase of profit for the industrial workers. Years later around 1931, the rural economy of China hit a Great Depression. The Great Depression was caused by an overproduction of agricultural goods which led to an increase on imports and falling prices in the Chinese market.
Northern China faces serious water shortage, where water resources have been overexploited for a long time, rivers became dried, the underground water was over exploited, and the river ecology and environment became deteriorated (Lu et al，2014; Deng & Zhao, 2014). The water scarcity is partly because of the falling supply, but even more because of the rising water demand from different sectors. Since agriculture is the main water-using sector in China, it consumes about 60% of the total water resource. The number can be even more than 80% in northern China (MWR, 2008). Among the water allocated to agriculture sector, 90% is used for irrigation.
This level is known as the Vedic era, and it was the beginning of the religious life of the community because at that time Hindu religion was born. Upon some time based in the Indus Valley, by the seventh century BC community's attention turned to the Ganges
The greatest evidence of the lasting impacts of the fall of the Roman empire is the worldwide religious transformations and economic regression that it caused. The Roman empire was a significant power in the global economy and when it fell, it sent shockwaves throughout the world. According to Dr. Peter Heather, a Professor of Medieval History at King 's College in London, “many more of the more advanced elements of the Roman economy, such as specialised production and long-distance trade, quickly disappeared too.” When long distance trade and specialization disappeared, these people went back to farming as a source of income. The economy was so bad that in some places there was no money anymore and “by the early 5th Century in Britain, currency stopped being used altogether”(Wood). This in turn led to less development after Rome because no one had an expendable income.
Objective of Study The primary objective of this study is to document, analyze and understand the Indus Valley Civilization. This paper is a brief summary of the findings of the excavations conducted on the banks if the Indus River and its surrounding regions. The researcher is extremely interested in the field of archeology and Ancient Indian Cultures and therefore chose this topic, to better understand the Indus Valley Civilization. This paper offers an Introduction to the great ancient civilization of the Indus Valley, and a short history of how it was discovered and excavated. It explores the geography of this Civilization and briefly narrates the Rise of the Harappan Civilization.
HARAPPAN CULTURE INTRODUCTION:- The name ‘India’ is derived from the river ‘Indus’. ‘India’ means the land of ‘Indus’. The first Aaryan settlers in India called the Indus the Sindhu (a huge sheet of water). In 518 BC the Persian emperor Darius – I conquered the land around Indus and turned it into a Persian province. So, (taken from Indian history by k.krishna Reddy).
The partition of India in 1947 was a complex problem and one which the then rulers of India did not solve satisfactorily. The problem was further complicated by the presence of several border princely states especially that of Jammu & Kashmir as well as the river systems of Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra. The Indus river system presented a very complex problem because all the rivers originated either in Jammu and Kashmir or India but the irrigated the areas of Punjab that had been allocated to Pakistan also headworks that regulated the flow of waters of these rivers were allotted to India.Apart from the Punjab Boundary Commission proposition that the canal-headworks system be considered as a joint venture, a suggestion discarded by both countries, no deliberations were carried out on water sharing during the process of partition. Problems arising out of water sharing issues of Indus System would later take more than 10 years to resolve.Further complicating this issue,Pakistancovertly and later overtly tried to take control of Jammu & Kashmir for many reasons including that of its perceived need to have the rivers of Jammu
Similarly Pakistan has exclusive rights over use of the western river. Paksitan also received one time financial compensation for the loss of water from eastern river. Construction of New Dams by India on the rivers passing Through Occupied Kashmir:- The recent years construction of new dams by India on the rivers passing through over occupied Kashmir the water shortage has become a crucial issue for Pakistan The Agriculture sector of Pakistan is facing like drought conditions and being agro based economy of Pakistan is near to collapse. Under the Indus Water treaty Pakistan was deprived to get water of three major rivers. To compensate the loss Pakistan build Dams on Indus and Jhelum Rivers but with the passage of time water resources became short population growth is another very important factor behind it.
He uses the example of the Kshatriyas to substantiate this- his historical research claims that the Nandas were the last ‘true’ Kshatriyas, and they disappeared in the 5th century BC. Since then, all castes claiming to be Kshatriya, are actually other (lower) castes but have been elevated to this position because of their profession/service as soldiers. This includes the Rajputs, Palas and Marathas among other prominent ruling lineages. b. Universality: History also reveals that Sanskritization has been a major process of cultural change that has occurred in every part of the Indian subcontinent. It may have been more active in some periods than others, and some parts of India may be more Sankritized than others, but the process itself is a universal one.