Indus Valley Civilization Essay

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Pre Historic

70000 – 50000 BC: Migrations to India through Land bridges 8000 – 5000 BC: Rock art in Bhimbetka, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.

Indus Valley Civilization

3000 BC: Beginning of the Indus Valley Civilization

2500 BC: Establishment of the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley 2000 BC: Decline of the Indus Valley Civilization

1600 BC: India is invaded by the Aryans from the west who drive away the Dravidians 1100 BC: With the discovery of iron, Indo-Aryans start using iron tools

Vedic Period

1000 BC: One of the earliest Holy Scripture, Rig-Veda is composed

750 BC: Indo-Aryans rule over 16 Mahajanapadas (16 Great States) in northern India, from the Indus to the Ganges

700 BC: Beginning of the caste system, with the
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543 BC: Bimbisara of Bihar conquers the Magadha region in the northeast

527 BC: Prince Siddhartha Gautama attains enlightenment and becomes the Buddha

500 BC: The ascetic prince Mahavira establishes Jainism in northern India 493 BC: Bimbisara dies and is succeeded by Ajatashatru

461 BC: Ajatashatru expands the Magadha territory and dies shortly afterwards

Mauryan Period

327 BC: Alexander the Great of Macedonia invades the Indus valley, fights the famous battle with Porus 304 BC: Magadha king Chandragupta Maurya buys the Indus valley and establishes the Maurya dynasty with Pataliputra as the capital

300 BC: Ramayana, a famous epic is composed

300 BC: Chola dynasty establishes his kingdom over southern India with capital in Thanjavur 290 BC: Chandragupta’s son Bindusara, extends the empire to the Deccan region

259 BC: Mauryan emperor Ashoka converts to Buddhism and sends out Buddhist missionaries to nearby regions

220 BC: Maurya dynasty expands to almost all of India 200 BC: Mahabharata, another famous epic is composed 200 BC: Andhras occupy the east coast of India

184 BC: Maurya dynasty ends and marks the beginning of Sunga dynasty 150 BC: Patanjali writes the “Yoga
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670 AD: Pallavas establish themselves at a new city at Mamallapuram

750 AD: Gurjara – Pratiharas rule the north of India and the Palas establish themselves in eastern India 753 AD: Rashtrakutas, a Chalukya dynasty, expands from the Deccan into south and central India 775 AD: Chalukyas defeat the Rashtrakutas and move the capital at Kalyani

800 AD: Many kingdoms are created in central India and in Rajastan by Rajputs 846 AD: Cholas get back their independence from the Pallavas

885 AD: Pratihara Empire reaches its peak and extends its empire from Punjab to Gujarat to Central India

888 AD: End of the Pallava dynasty

985 AD: Rajaraja Chola extends the Chola Empire to all of south India and constructs the temple of Thanjavur

997 AD: Mahmud of Ghazni raids northern India

998 AD: Mahmud of Ghazni conquers the area of Punjab

1000 AD: Chola king Rajaraja builds the Brihadeshvara Temple in Thanjavur

1019 AD: Mahmud Ghazni attacks north India and destroys Kannauj, which is the capital of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire

1050 AD: Chola Empire conquers Srivijaya, Malaya and the Maldives 1084 AD: Mahipala raises the Palas to the peak of their power

1190 AD: Chalukya Empire is split among Hoysalas, Yadavas and

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